PASSİVE

EDİLGEN YAPI (= PASSIVE)

1. KULLANIM

İngilizcede passive yapı be + V3 yapısı ile olur. Be yüklemi tümcenin zamanına uygun olarak am, is, are, was, were, be, been hallerinden birini alır. Türkçede ise edilgen yapı “yüklem + -Il/In” yapısı ile oluşturulur.

2. ZAMANLAR VE YARDIMCI YÜKLEMLERDE PASSIVE

Simple Present
English is spoken in many countries.

  İngilizce bir çok ülkede konuşulmakta.

Present Continuous
The house is being decorated.

Present Perfect
She has been informed.

Present Perfect Continuous
The research has been being done. (Kullanılmaz!)

Simple Past
I was informed.

Past Continuous
I was being followed.

Past Perfect
He had been misunderstood.

Past Perfect Continuous
I had been being questioned for hours. (Kullanılmaz!)

Future
will
It will be completed on time.

going to
They are going to be invited.

continuous
You will be being informed soon. (Kullanılmaz!)

perfect
It will have been opened by next week.

Modal verbs

can 
could 
had better 
have to 
may 
might 
must 
need to 
ought to 
can + be + V3 
could + be + V3 
had better + be + V3 
have to + be + V
may + be + V3 
might + be + V3 
must + be + V3 
need to + be + V3 
ought to + be + V
shall 
should 
used to 
would 
would rather
shall + be + V3 
should + be + V3 
used to + be + V
would + be + V
would rather + be + V3


Compulsary military service can be abolished in the near future.

A. Askerlik yakın gelecekte zorunlu hizmet olmaktan çıkarılabilir.
B. Yakın gelecekte zorunlu askerlik hizmeti kaldırılabilir.
C. Zorunlu askerlik hizmeti yakında kaldırılacak.
D. Zorunlu askerlik hizmeti yakın gelecekte kaldırılabilmeli
E. Zorunlu askerlik hizmetini kaldırılması yakın geleceğe kaldı.

She ….. better instructions about the project; then, she wouldn’t have made these mistakes.

A. must gave given
B. ought to be given
C. should have been given
D. was able to give
E. was given

3. PASSIVE ANLAM TAŞIYAN YÜKLEMLER

Bazı yüklemler, tümceye göre, passive anlam taşıyarak kullanılabilirler.

Your report reads well.

The new Ford is selling badly.

It is a nice material, but it doesn’t wash.


4. ACTIVE TÜMCENİN NESNESİNİN BİR CLAUSE OLMASI

Örneklerde de görüleceği gibi, active bir tümcenin nesnesinin bir clause olması durumunda

People believed (that) the witches communicated with the devil.

bu tümce çeşitli durumlarda passive yapılabilir.

It was believed that the witches communicated with the devil.

The witches were believed to communicate with the devil.

That the witches communicated with the devil was believed.

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