OKUMA

Okuma

Okuma bölümü dil sınavlarının en fazla çekinilen bölümüdür. Ancak, bu konuda verilen açıklama ve alıştırmaları ayrıntıları ile incelerseniz okuma sorularını doğru yanıtlama oranınız artacaktır.

Okuma bölümünde okuma metninden önce metnin sorularını okuyun. Bu şekilde zamandan kazanırsınız.

Çeşitli senelerde sorulmuş KPDS/YDS’ler incelendiğinde, aslında belirli soru tiplerinin mevcut olduğu ortaya çıkmakta. Bu soru tiplerinden bazıları sadece bir iki sınavda kullanılırken bazılarına çok sık rastlanmakta. Bu soru tiplerini bir sıraya koyarak her birinin sizden ne istediğini göstermeyi, yanıtın metnin neresinde ve nasıl bulunabileceğini örnekler ve çok değişik alıştırmalar yolu ile sergilemeyi amaçladım. Önerim, alıştırmaları örnekleri dikkatle inceleyerek ve talimatları dikkatle okuyarak baştan sona kadar yapmanızdır. Bunu yaparken de mümkün olduğu kadar fazla alıştırmayı yanıtlayın. Zamanla bir okuma alışkanlığı edineceğinizi umuyorum.

OKUMA – ÖRNEK SORULAR

Aşağıda örnek olarak 12 okuma metni verildi.

Yanıtlar bütün sorulardan sonra gelmekte.

1.-3. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

The novelist E. L. Doctorow is best known for mixing fiction with historical fact , by placing his stories within the framework of public events. In fact, by integrating the front-page news of 20th-century America with the lives of his characters, Doctorow gives the reader the “feel” of an era, combining the unusual and the commonplace . His latest novel, World’s Fair, shows how the events of the turbulent 1930’s helped mold the sensibilities of his young protagonist.

1.It is explained in the passage that Doctorow’s novel World’s Fair ….. .
  1. describes the damaging effects of the turbulent 1930s on the sensitive young protagonist
  2. is actually a full historical account of the great changes that took place in the 1930s
  3. demonstrates his theories concerning the relationship between man and his society
  4. fails to give his readers a “feel” of the 1930s in America
  5. gives an account of how thoughts and feelings of the main character are shaped by the period inwhich he lived
2.From the passage we learn that a blend of fiction and history ….. .
  1. has not always been Doctorow’s primary concern
  2. is deliberately avoided by Doctorow in his most recent novel
  3. is a striking feature of Doctorow’s writing
  4. is commonly used by contemporary American writers, including Doctorow himself
  5. is never to be found in he traditional novel
3.We see in he passage that Doctorow’s purpose in bringing together in his novels the usual and the extraordinary …..
  1. is to build up a convincing picture of a period
  2. did not achieve the result he aimed for in World’s Fair
  3. has been frequently criticized by his readers
  4. has not been properly appreciated except in the case of World’s Fair
  5. has been shared by other 20th-century American novelists
4.-6. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

In earlier centuries it was thought that a great continent must exist in the southern hemisphere around the South Pole, to balance the known land masses in the north. Its real extent was better understood in the 18th century, particularly when Captain Cook sailed for the first time south of the Antarctic Circle and reached the edge of the ice-pack . A portion of the ice-covered continent was first sighted by Edward Bransfield in 1820. Explorers of several other nations also sighted portions of the coast-line in other quarters and wrote detailed accounts of their observations. However, in the light of these accounts, the first extensive exploration was made by Captain James Clarke Ross in 1841 when a great part of the Antarctic was discovered.

4.As we can understand from the passage, it was assumed many centuries ago that the large land mass around the North Pole ….. .
  1. seemed to be impenetrable and, hence, inexplorable
  2. could not have a counterpart in the southern hemisphere
  3. had a regular and unchanging coastline
  4. must have been balanced by a similar extent of land mass around the South Pole
  5. would be reduced in size once the edge of the ice-pack began to melt
5.It is pointed out in the passage that it was only with Captain Cook’s voyage in the 18th century that ….. .
  1. the first serious expedition into the interior of the Antarctic was launched
  2. a partially accurate assessment of the size of the Antarctic could be made
  3. people began to realize just how small the land mass here was
  4. multi-national projects for exploration of the Antarctic were put into effect
  5. the rich natural resources of the Antarctic became known to the outside world
6.It is clear from the passage that, following various earlier reports concerning the Antarctic, ….. .
  1. Edward Bransfield joined the international project to study the ice-pack of the continent
  2. many explorers were discouraged from undertaking any serious exploration there
  3. explorers from various countries began to compete with each other for the conquest of thecontinent
  4. Captain Cook decided to undertake a second voyage of discovery in the area
  5. the first major large-scale discovery of the continent was undertaken by James Clarke Ross in1841
7.-9. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

The police are a regular force established for the preservation of law and order and the prevention and detection of crime. The powers they have vary from country to country and with the type of government; the more civilized and democratic the state is, the less police intervention there is. England, compared with other countries, was slow to develop a police force, and it was not until 1829 that Sir Robert Peel’s Metropolitan Police Act established a regular force for the metropolis. Later legislation established county and borough forces maintained by local authorities throughout England and Wales.

7.It is clear from the passage that one of the major concerns of the police is ….. .
  1. to uphold the law and maintain order in society
  2. to put on trial those guilty of criminal behaviour
  3. the enlargement of their own powers as far as is compatible with democracy
  4. to uphold the universal principles of democracy
  5. to intervene, when necessary, in matters of legislation
8.We understand from the passage that the powers of the police ….. .
  1. are much stronger in country areas than in cities
  2. cannot be limited in democratic countries
  3. have been strongly criticized in England
  4. were first defined by the British government in 1829
  5. are closely related to the political regime of a country
9.The writer tells us that, before England set up a police force, ….. .
  1. various countries had already established one of their own
  2. the preservation of law and order was being maintained by local authorities
  3. Sir Robert Peel showed little interest in the preservation of law and order
  4. the prevention and detection of crime in the boroughs was almost impossible
  5. Wales had the highest crime rate in Britain
10.-12. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

In 1945, following the Second World War, the allies, that is, the United States, the Soviet Union and Britain drew up and signed the Postdam Agreement. The main points of this agreement were that militarism and Hitlerism should be destroyed, that industrial power should be so reduced that Germany would never again be in a position to wage aggressive was, that surplus equipment should be destroyed or transferred to replace wrecked plants in allied territories, that Germany should be treated as an economic whole, and that local self-government should be restored on democratic lines as rapidly as was consistent with military security.

10.As we learn from the passage, the Postdam Agreement ….. .
  1. was originally proposed by the United States
  2. was the first treaty of its kind to be signed with the Soviet Union
  3. was a treaty, which was signed by the allies, with the principle aim of ensuring peace andsecurity in Europe
  4. improved the relations between the Soviet Union and the West
  5. was drafted by the allies in consultation with Germany
11.According to the passage, one of the major provisions made in the Postdam Agreement was that ….. .
  1. the necessary measures should be taken to prevent Germany from any future renewal of aggression
  2. the rearmament of Germany should be under allied supervision
  3. the military, but not the domestic, policies of Hitler should be discontinued
  4. Germany’s industrial production should be reduced to a pre-Hitler level
  5. local administrations in Germany should concern themselves only with social welfare
12.It is pointed out in the passage that the Postdam Agreement envisaged ….. .
  1. a European political institution to safeguard peace
  2. a step-by-step reduction of Germany’s economic efficiency
  3. the restoration of democracy throughout Europe
  4. the transfer of surplus equipment from Germany to the allied countries to help recovery of industry there
  5. the maintenance of military security through a new alliance with Germany
13.-15. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

The International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) known as the international Bank or the World Bank, is an agency of the United Nations established in 1945. It has the primary function of making loans available to assist developing countries. Usually, loans are made to finance specific projects of investment in underdeveloped countries, and the Bank will normally make a loan only if it is satisfied that the investment will yield a revenue sufficient to enable the payment of interest of the loan, and the repayment of the sum lent. In 1983 the Bank made loans to the value of $3,000 million. Thus a sizeable amount of lending is channelled through the Bank, but it is clear that some projects of great value to underdeveloped countries cannot be financed in this way, because they would not yield returns quickly enough or large enough to meet the Bank’s requirements for interest and repayment.

13.It is pointed in the passage that the World Bank was founded in order to ….. .
  1. provide the United Nations with a constant source of income for its various projects
  2. bring all developing countries up to the same level of economic prosperity
  3. provide underdeveloped countries, in particular, with the necessary financial support for therealization of their major development projects
  4. give loans to all the countries in the world on an equal basis, regardless of their economic position
  5. make loans available to those countries not receiving support from the developed countries
14.We can understand from the passage that World Bank will usually not provide loans for investment projects in developing countries unless ….. .
  1. it is absolutely certain that the money lent will be returned in full and with interest
  2. it has been unanimously approved by the United Nations
  3. these countries are in a position to finance a good part of these projects
  4. these projects are indeed of vital importance for the industrialization of these countries
  5. these countries are prepared to pay a sizeable interest rate on the money lent
15.The passage gives a general account of ….. .
  1. why the World Bank has relaxed its traditionally strict loan policies in favour of developing countries
  2. how the World Bank was founded and has been financed by the United Nations
  3. the ways and means by which the World Bank has influenced developing countries
  4. how the financial policies of the World Bank are controlled by the United Nations
  5. the main funding policy followed by the World Bank in relation to underdeveloped countries
16.-18. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

Oceanography is the scientific study of the world’s oceans which cover over 70 per cent of the earth’s surface. The beginnings of modern oceanography go back to the 1870s when, for the first time, wide ranging scientific observations and studies of the oceans were undertaken by the British. Since then oceanography has developed into a highly technical and interdisciplinary science which is now divided into several fields of study. Those are biological oceanography, which deals with the study of marine organisms and marine ecology, chemical oceanography, which is concerned with the composition of sea water, and physical oceanography, which studies ocean currents, tides, waves, and the role played by the oceans in climate and weather. Geological oceanography is also another branch of oceanography and is mainly concerned with the formation, composition and evolution of the ocean basins. Oceanographic knowledge is essential to allow exploitation of the enormous food, mineral and energy resources of the oceans with minimum damage to the ocean environment.

16.In the passage the writer does not dwell on ….. .
  1. the purpose and research concerns of biological oceanography
  2. the history of oceanographic studies, and the range of these studies
  3. how oceanographic studies can contribute to the improvement of shipping
  4. the uses for us of the information provided by oceanographic studies about the oceans
  5. what geological and chemical oceanography deal with
17.It is clear from the passage that, due to the complexity and variety of its research activities, oceanography ….. .
  1. cooperates with some of the other sciences
  2. focuses only on the discovery of new energy resources in the oceans
  3. benefits extensively from the findings of biology
  4. is rarely concerned with the problems of the ocean environment
  5. has developed into a separate and independent discipline with no relationship with other sciences
18.We understand from the passage that over the last hundred years or so ….. .
  1. many wide ranging studies have been made of ocean currents and their effects on climate
  2. the oceans have been extensively exploited for food and mineral deposits
  3. British scientists have carried out extensive studies of the ocean basins
  4. scientists have been much concerned with the pollution of the ocean environment
  5. much progress has been made in the development of oceanography as a science
19.-21. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

The unfavourable effects of cigarette smoking on the heart have frequently been described, but the exact basis for these effects has not been clarified. Some investigators believe nicotine to be culprit, and there has been some experimental work in animals indicating that large doses of nicotine in conjunction with cholesterol feeding and vitamin D could produce a disease of arteries resembling that seen in humans. An alternative explanation has been offered by other scientists who have pointed to the possible role of carbon monoxide being inhaled with the cigarette smoke.

19.It is pointed out in the passage that nicotine ….. .
  1. is considered by some to be one of the reasons why smoking has an adverse effect on the heart
  2. is the only harmful factor in relation to smoking
  3. affects animals more seriously than humans
  4. has been established as more dangerous than carbon monoxide for smokers
  5. has an adverse effect only upon the arteries
20.According to the passage, studies into the adverse effects of smoking ….. .
  1. have ruled out any relationship between smoking and cholesterol levels in humans
  2. have not been able to establish for certain whether or not carbon monoxide could be a factor
  3. have so far not raised any controversial opinions
  4. have shown that vitamin D reduces nicotine in the body
  5. indicate that nicotine and carbon monoxide may be only minor factors
21.The main concern of the passage is to ….. .
  1. describe certain experiments on animals relating to the effects of carbon monoxide
  2. emphasize the role nicotine and vitamin D play in heart disease
  3. demonstrate that the adverse effects of smoking on the heart are still under debate
  4. compare the effects on the heart of nicotine and carbon monoxide
  5. give an account of the research work concerning animal diseases
22.-24. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

Agriculture remains the most crucial area for development; here it seems that the most intractable problems of resistance to change exist. One may argue that scientific training in agriculture by itself is unlikely to have any marked impact on agricultural output. Any attempt at vocational training in agriculture presupposes that a meaningful structure of incentive exists for the individual farmer to increase his output, improve his techniques, and expand his range of activities. Without such incentives and opportunities, agricultural education can have little impact.

22.The author is of the opinion that improvements in the field of agriculture ….. .
  1. cannot be achieved through vocational training
  2. can easily be realized
  3. have already led to good results
  4. are absolutely vital for productivity
  5. have largely been confined to technology
23.We can understand from the passage that the agricultural community ….. .
  1. tends to disregard the problems of the individual farmer
  2. is eager for more vocational training
  3. is fully aware of the long-term benefits of scientific training
  4. has already begun to benefit from the improved techniques
  5. is not the one that welcomes change
24.The author concludes that vocational training in agriculture ….. .
  1. will be an effective way of eliminating resistance to change in society
  2. will provide farmers with a range of opportunities
  3. will be futile unless it’s backed up with various incentives
  4. is regarded as a priority for social development
  5. has often been underestimated by various authorities
25.-27. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

Some decades ago there was hardly such a subject as the economics of education. Today it is one of the most rapidly growing branches of economics. Together with health economics, it makes up the core of the economics of human resources, a field of inquiry which in the last few years has been silently revolutionizing such traditional subjects as growth economics, labour economics, international trade, and public finance. Consequently, the economics of education with its concept of human investment has rapidly transformed large areas of orthodox economics.

25.The author points out that the term “the economics of education” ….. .
  1. has only come into use in very recent years
  2. has for decades been under discussion among economists
  3. is of little significance in orthodox economics
  4. has only been accepted in educational circles
  5. is gradually disappearing from economic writings
26.According to the passage, the economics of education ….. .
  1. is not connected in anyway with investment in man
  2. relates to a very narrow sphere of human activity
  3. has had no impact whatsoever on other areas of orthodox economics
  4. has today come into the forefront of economic thinking
  5. is one of the earliest branches of general economics
27.The author suggests that the earlier branches of economics ….. .
  1. have grown steadily in importance
  2. have been substantially modified through the introduction of the economics of human resources
  3. have been virtually unaffected by health economics or the economics of human resources
  4. gave great importance to the idea of human investment
  5. constituted the essence of the economics of human resources
28.-30. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

Tigers grow to lengths of ten feet or more, and can be bigger than the largest lion. They have immense strength, They clutch their prey to them, holding on with their claws, and depend on the crushing bite of their powerful jaws to end the struggle. They swim very well and can often be seen splashing about in water on very hot days, since they apparently suffer from the heat. When the air is chilly, however, they avoid wet or damp vegetation. They can climb, but do not approach the leopard’s ability in this. They can negotiate treacherous rocky areas but generally prefer to stay on level ground. They are not as well equipped with senses as one might expect. They apparently depend on their hearing while hunting. Their eyesight is not particularly good, and they seem unable to spot prey until it moves.

28.It is clear from the passage that tigers ….. .
  1. rely on their huge claws to catch and kill their prey
  2. are the most successful climbers of all wild animals
  3. are sensitive to significant variations in temperature
  4. closely resemble lions as regards size, speed and strength
  5. rely heavily upon their eyesight in locating and catching prey
29.As it is mentioned in the passage, a flat terrain ….. .
  1. is usually the favoured habitat of the tiger
  2. rather than rocky cliffs gives tigers better opportunities for hiding
  3. provides camouflage for leopards
  4. is usually wet, so tigers prefer higher levels
  5. usually has thicker vegetation which shelters more prey
30.From the passage we learn that, contrary to what is generally thought, ….. .
  1. once a prey starts to move a tiger can rarely catch it
  2. hearing is the least developed sense of the tiger
  3. the leopard’s hunting ability is far behind that of the tiger
  4. rocky areas are invariably avoided by all wild animals
  5. the tiger’s senses are not particularly well developed
31.-33. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

Scientists have long sought ways to define and measure human intelligence. And while theories of intelligence have grown more sophisticated since the 1800s when some believed mental abilities were determined by the size of a person’s head, researchers still do not agree about certain fundamental principles of human thought. They therefore continue to debate such basic questions as whether heredity or the environment is more important in forming intelligence.

31.As we learn from the passage, the age-old controversy about whether intelligence depends upon heredity or the environment …. .
  1. is now being ignored as it is seen to be fruitless
  2. was finally resolved in 1800s
  3. has only recently become a subject for serious research
  4. does not seem to have ceased yet
  5. was more sophisticated in the 19th century than it is now
32.According to the passage, in the early nineteenth century, some people held the view that a person’s mental capacity ….. .
  1. could never be changed
  2. depended on the head size
  3. was purely hereditary
  4. was completely shaped by the environment
  5. fundamental to his character
33.One may conclude from the passage that a full understanding of the nature and the capacity of human intelligence ….. .
  1. can only be achieved by exceptionally sophisticated minds
  2. has finally been achieved by modern scientists
  3. is sure to be realized within the next few years
  4. is not likely to be achieved in the near future
  5. will emerge through theoretical rather than experimental studies
34.-36. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

Secularization as it has developed since the Middle Ages had consisted in substituting for supernatural and theological explanations naturalistic and reasonable ones. This change is one of the most profound affecting mankind and forms the basis of modern democratic government and of our scientific-technological age. In a society based on the divine right of kings there could be no genuinely democratic government in the modern sense. Democracy is built on the idea that the individual has a right to judge political issues for himself.

34.According to the passage, with the rise of democracy, ….. .
  1. supernatural ideas have given way to theological ones
  2. scientific and technological progress has been neglected
  3. secularization has lost its traditional meaning
  4. the individual has lost many of his former rights
  5. the traditional concept of the “divine right of kings” has vanished
35.It is argued that the process of secularization ….. .
  1. has had no impact on the concept of monarchy
  2. goes back to pre-medieval times
  3. has led to systems of democratic government
  4. has no relevance to the exercise of individual rights
  5. has failed to overcome superstition and magic
36.In the development of modern society ….. .
  1. medieval institutions have not been neglected
  2. democracy has been of little significance
  3. technological supremacy has been the ultimate aim
  4. the impact of secularisation has been of fundamental importance
  5. individual rights have been curtailed

YANITLAR

Metin içinde hangi tümcenin hangi sorunun yanıtını verdiği, koyu yazılan tümceden hemen sonra sorunun numarası parantez içinde verilerek belirtilmiştir.

The novelist E. L. Doctorow is best known for mixing fiction with historical fact (2), by placing his stories within the framework of public events. In fact, by integrating the front-page news of 20th-century America with the lives of his characters, Doctorow gives the reader the “feel” of an era, combining the unusual and the commonplace (3). His latest novel, World’s Fair, shows how the events of the turbulent 1930’s helped mold the sensibilities of his young protagonist (1).

1. It is explained in the passage that Doctorow’s novel World’s Fair ….. .

E) gives an account of how thoughts and feelings of the main character are shaped by the period in which he lived

2. From the passage we learn that a blend of fiction and history ….. .

C) is a striking feature of Doctorow’s writing

3. We see in he passage that Doctorow’s purpose in bringing together in his novels the usual and theextraordinary …..

A) is to build up a convincing picture of a period

In earlier centuries it was thought that a great continent must exist in the southern hemisphere around the South Pole, to balance the known land masses in the north (4). Its real extent was better understood in the 18th century, particularly when Captain Cook sailed for the first time south of the Antarctic Circle and reached the edge of the ice-pack (5). A portion of the ice-covered continent was first sighted by Edward Bransfield in 1820. Explorers of several other nations also sighted portions of the coast-line in other quarters and wrote detailed accounts of their observations. However, in the light of these accounts, the first extensive exploration was made by Captain James Clarke Ross in 1841 when a great part of the Antarctic was discovered (6).

4. As we can understand from the passage, it was assumed many centuries ago that the large land mass around the North Pole ….. .

D) must have been balanced by a similar extent of land mass around the South Pole

5. It is pointed out in the passage that it was only with Captain Cook’s voyage in the 18th century that ….. .

B) a partially accurate assessment of the size of the Antarctic could be made

6. It is clear from the passage that, following various earlier reports concerning the Antarctic, ….. .

E) the first major large-scale discovery of the continent was undertaken by James Clarke Ross in 1841

The police are a regular force established for the preservation of law and order and the prevention and detection of crime (7). The powers they have vary from country to country and with the type of government; the more civilized and democratic the state is, the less police intervention there is (8). England, compared with other countries, was slow to develop a police force, and it was not until 1829 that Sir Robert Peel’s Metropolitan Police Act established a regular force for the metropolis. Later legislation established county and borough forces maintained by local authorities throughout England and Wales (9).

7. It is clear from the passage that one of the major concerns of the police is ….. .

A) to uphold the law and maintain order in society

8. We understand from the passage that the powers of the police ….. .

E) are closely related to the political regime of a country

9. The writer tells us that, before England set up a police force, ….. .

B) the preservation of law and order was being maintained by local authorities

In 1945, following the Second World War, the allies, that is, the United States, the Soviet Union and Britain drew up and signed the Postdam Agreement (10). The main points of this agreement were that militarism and Hitlerism should be destroyed, that industrial power should be so reduced that Germany would never again be in a position to wage aggressive ways (11), that surplus equipment should be destroyed or transferred to replace wrecked plants in allied territories (12), that Germany should be treated as an economic whole, and that local self-government should be restored on democratic lines as rapidly as was consistent with military security.

10. As we learn from the passage, the Postdam Agreement ….. .

C) was a treaty, which was signed by the allies, with the principle aim of ensuring peace and security in Europe

11. According to the passage, one of the major provisions made in the Postdam Agreement was that ….. .

A) the necessary measures should be taken to prevent Germany from any future renewal of aggression

12. It is pointed out in the passage that the Postdam Agreement envisaged ….. .

D) the transfer of surplus equipment from Germany to the allied countries to help recovery of industry there

The International Bank of Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) known as the international Bank or the World Bank, is an agency of the United Nations established in 1945. It has the primary function of making loans available to assist developing countries (13). Usually, loans are made to finance specific projects of investment in underdeveloped countries, and the Bank will normally make a loan only if it is satisfied that the investment will yield a revenue sufficient to enable the payment of interest of the loan, and the repayment of the sum lent (14). In 1983 the Bank made loans to the value of $3,000 million. Thus a sizeable amount of lending is channelled through the Bank, but it is clear that some projects of great value to underdeveloped countries cannot be financed in this way, because they would not yield returns quickly enough or large enough to meet the Bank’s requirements for interest and repayment.

13. It is pointed in the passage that the World Bank was founded in order to ….. .

C) provide underdeveloped countries, in particular, with the necessary financial support for the realization of their major development projects

14. We can understand from the passage that World Bank will usually not provide loans for investment projects in developing countries unless ….. .

A) it is absolutely certain that the money lent will be returned in full and with interest

15. The passage gives a general account of ….. .

E) the main funding policy followed by the World Bank in relation to underdeveloped countries

Oceanography is the scientific study of the world’s oceans which cover over 70 per cent of the earth’s surface. The beginnings of modern oceanography go back to the 1870s when, for the first time, wide ranging scientific observations and studies of the oceans were undertaken by the British. Since then oceanography has developed into a highly technical and interdisciplinary science which is now divided into several fields of study (17). Those are biological oceanography, which deals with the study of marine organisms and marine ecology, chemical oceanography, which is concerned with the composition of sea water, and physical oceanography, which studies ocean currents, tides, waves, and the role played by the oceans in climate and weather. Geological oceanography is also another branch of oceanography and is mainly concerned with the formation, composition and evolution of the ocean basins. Oceanographic knowledge is essential to allow exploitation of the enormous food, mineral and energy resources of the oceans with minimum damage to the ocean environment.

16. It the passage the writer does not dwell on ….. .

C) how oceanographic studies can contribute to the improvement of shipping

17. It is clear from the passage that, due to the complexity and variety of its research activities,

      oceanography ….. .

A) cooperates with some of the other sciences

18. We understand from the passage that over the last hundred years or so ….. .

E) much progress has been made in the development of oceanography as a science

The unfavourable effects of cigarette smoking on the heart have frequently been described, but the exact basis for these effects has not been clarified (20-21). Some investigators believe nicotine to be culprit, and there has been some experimental work in animals indicating that large doses of nicotine in conjunction with cholesterol feeding and vitamin D could produce a disease of arteries resembling that seen in humans (19). An alternative explanation has been offered by other scientists who have pointed to the possible role of carbon monoxide being inhaled with the cigarette smoke.

19. It is pointed out in the passage that nicotine ….. .

A) is considered by some to be one of the reasons why smoking has an adverse effect on the heart.

20. According to the passage, studies into the adverse effects of smoking ….. .

B) have not been able to establish for certain whether or not carbon monoxide could be a factor

21. The main concern of the passage is to ….. .

C) demonstrate that the adverse effects of smoking on the heart are still under debate

Agriculture remains the most crucial area for development; here it seems that the most intractable problems of resistance to change exist (23). One may argue that scientific training in agriculture by itself is unlikely to have any marked impact on agricultural output. Any attempt at vocational training in agriculture presupposes that a meaningful structure of incentive exists for the individual farmer to increase his output, improve his techniques, and expand his range of activities (22). Without such incentives and opportunities, agricultural education can have little impact (23).

22. The author is of the opinion that improvements in the field of agriculture ….. .

D) are absolutely vital for productivity

23. We can understand from the passage that the agricultural community ….. .

E) is not the one that welcomes change

24. The author concludes that vocational training in agriculture ….. .

C) will be futile unless it’s backed up with various incentives

Some decades ago there was hardly such a subject as the economics of education. Today it is one of the most rapidly growing branches of economics (25). Together with health economics, it makes up the core of the economics of human resources, a field of inquiry which in the last few years has been silently revolutionizing such traditional subjects as growth economics, labour economics, international trade, and public finance (26). Consequently, the economics of education with its concept of human investment has rapidly transformed large areas of orthodox economics (27).

25. The author points out that the term “the economics of education” ….. .

A) has only come into use in very recent years

26. According to the passage, the economics of education ….. .

E) is one of the earliest branches of general economics

27. The author suggests that the earlier branches of economics ….. .

E) constituted the essence of the economics of human resources

Tigers grow to lengths of ten feet or more, and can be bigger than the largest lion. They have immense strength, They clutch their prey to them, holding on with their claws, and depend on the crushing bite of their powerful jaws to end the struggle. They swim very well and can often be seen splashing about in water on very hot days, since they apparently suffer from the heat. When the air is chilly, however, they avoid wet or damp vegetation (28). They can climb, but do not approach the leopard’s ability in this. They can negotiate treacherous rocky areas but generally prefer to stay on level ground (29). They are not as well equipped with senses as one might expect. They apparently depend on their hearing while hunting. Their eyesight is not particularly good (30), and they seem unable to spot prey until it moves.

28. It is clear from the passage that tigers ….. .

C) are sensitive to significant variations in temperature

29. As it is mentioned in the passage, a flat terrain ….. .

A) is usually the favoured habitat of the tiger

30. From the passage we learn that, contrary to what is generally thought, ….. .

E) the tiger’s senses are not particularly well developed

Scientists have long sought ways to define and measure human intelligence. And while theories of intelligence have grown more sophisticated since the 1800s when some believed mental abilities were determined by the size of a person’s head (34), researchers still do not agree about certain fundamental principles of human thought. They therefore continue to debate such basic questions as whether heredity or the environment is more important in forming intelligence (33-35).

31. As we learn from the passage, the age-old controversy about whether intelligence depends upon heredity or the environment …. .

D) does not seem to have ceased yet

32. According to the passage, in the early nineteenth century, some people held the view that a person’smental capacity ….. .

B) depended on the head size

33. One may conclude from the passage that a full understanding of the nature and the capacity of humanintelligence ….. .

D) is not likely to be achieved in the near future

Secularization as it has developed since the Middle Ages had consisted in substituting for supernatural and theological explanations naturalistic and reasonable ones. This change is one of the most profound affecting mankind and forms the basis of modern democratic government (35) and of our scientific-technological age (36). In a society based on the divine right of kings there could be no genuinely democratic government in the modern sense (34). Democracy is built on the idea that the individual has a right to judge political issues for himself.

34. According to the passage, with the rise of democracy, ….. .

E) the traditional concept of the “divine right of kings” has vanished

35. It is argued that the process of secularization ….. .

C) has led to systems of democratic government

36. In the development of modern society ….. .

D) the impact of secularisation has been of fundamental importance


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