OKUMA ÇALIŞMALARI

Okuma – Soru Tiplerine Yönelik Çalışmalar

Yanıtlar en sonda verilmekte.

Soru tipleri:
  I. DOĞRUDAN YANITLANABİLECEK SORULAR

I. 1. METNİN TÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

I.1.A. Konu / Başlık
I.1.B. Ana fikir

I.2. METNİN BİR BÖLÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

I.2.A. Metinde var olana yönelik

a) Değinme sözcükleri
b) Bağlantı sözcükleri
c) Karmaşık yapılar

I.2.B. Metinde var olmayana yönelik

II. DOĞRUDAN YANITLANAMAYAN SORULAR

II.1. METNİN TÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

II.1.A. Metnin / Yazarın ifade tonu
II.1.B. Yazarın amacı
II.1.C. Ortam

II.2. METNİN BİR BÖLÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

II.2.A. İma edilen
II.2.B. Metinden önce/sonra gelen
II.2.C. Sözcük anlamı

III. GENEL SORULAR
 


I. DOĞRUDAN YANITLANABİLECEK SORULAR

I. 1. METNİN TÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

I.1.A. Konu / Başlık

Alıştırma 1

Aşağıdaki metinlerde sadece destekleyici tümceler verilmiştir. Metinlerin ardından da üç olası konu tümcesi gelmektedir. Metni sunabilecek olan en uygun tümceyi seçin.

Örnek:

__________. In Greek and Roman times, the cavalry was composed of members of noble families. This distinction continued up to the Middle Ages. After the invention of gunpowder, this branch of the military service underwent great changes. With the development of heavy artillery and air forces, this service has almost disappeared.

A) The cavalry has been displaced by armoured regiments.

B) Cavalry regiments still retain a mounted squadron for ceremonial duties. *

C) The cavalry is the part of an army consisting of troops that serve on horseback.

1.
__________. Outside, he knelt in the wet grass, tide his shoes, and then swung off toward the barn. There, ducking under the pitchforks, he filled a bucket with oats and water to make breakfast for his sows in the orchard. To get to the hogs he took the shortest way over the bridge above the swirling stream. As he passed over the water, he saw the boat of his grandfather pounding itself to pieces against the jagged rocks.

  1. It was obvious from the very start of it that Tom’s Saturday morning would be different from other mornings of the week because hardly had he got up then he sadly realised that he had lost one shoe the previous night when he had had too much to drink.
  2. Tom silently put on his shoes as soon as he left his bed since he was sure that he would be asked to set the table if one of his parents happened to wake up.
  3. Tom’s Saturday morning started very early as on other days of the week as he made his way to the garden.

2.
__________. One example is the new breed of cattle being developed by the Brazilians and specially adapted to withstand the pests and the climate of the tropics. And so it is that they are not only working on a new breed of cattle, but also on a new type of grass that is suitable to feed them.

  1. Brazil is doing her best to make sure that the flow of tourists continues while the country prospers as far as agriculture is concerned.
  2. In South America, where Brazil, together with Argentina, is the driving force of economy, farmers are surprised to find that their cattle will refuse to eat any sort of fodder that it imported from sub-tropical countries.
  3. The Brazilians today are developing their own civilisation – not a European civilisation, but one which is adapted to the tropical climate, tropical vegetation, tropical light, and tropical colours.

3.
__________. If you say only that it is loss of memory, you include in the group of amnesiacs any man who forgets his wife’s birthday or goes off to the office without his wristwatch. Actually, amnesia is something a bit more sinister. It is loss of memory, to be sure, but it is the sort brought on by injury, overwork, worry, or a nasty blow on the head.

  1. What can be done to stop amnesia?
  2. What, then, is amnesia?
  3. Why is amnesia so common?

4.
__________. In the first place, the ant often brings to the surface from a depth of several feet considerable quantities of subsoil. This is spread over the surface and exposed to the atmosphere. In the second place, the burrows quickly conduct air and the moisture into the deeper recesses of the soil.

  1. Although most ants prefer to dwell in houses where they can comfortably feed from the kitchen, garden ants choose to dig their complex labyrinth system out in the garden
  2. Common garden ants are harmful not only as pests that eat our crops but also simply because they are hard to destroy.
  3. While the activities of common garden ants are often annoying, their excavations are extremely valuable in renewing the soil.

5.
__________. First, it doubled the area of the United States and provided territory from which fourteen new states were created either wholly or in part. Second, it gave control over the mouth of the Mississippi River and opened up the way to foreign trade. Prior to the purchase, the waterway had been blocked by the Spanish, probably with the approval of Napoleon. Third, the land was rich in timber, minerals, and natural resources of other kinds. And, finally, the cost of transaction was unbelievably low; the total of $15,000,000 amounted to approximately four cents an acre.

  1. It was with the Lousiana Purchase that the first traces of trouble that led to the Civil War started to appear in the US.
  2. The Lousiana Purchase proved to be one of the most intelligent business pacts in the entire history of the U.S.
  3. When the Lousiana Purchase enabled the United States to take a large area under its dominance, someone estimated that it would be one the most troublesome pacts that the US would ever sign.

6.
__________. The Harbour or Leopard Seals, mottled with light or dark spots, prefer to remain close to home on the rocks just off the shore. Their fur is of little commercial value. The Alaska Fur Seals breed in the Pribilof Islands but range the length and breadth of the Pacific. They are extremely valuable but are protected from hunters by strict international agreement. The Steller Sea-Lions have been found from Santa Barbara all the way to the Bering Sea, but they are now extremely rare. Their noise is a roar and this, plus the tawny, lion-like mane, doubtless accounts for the name. The California Sea-Lion is small, dark, and usually trainable. Because of its size and sagacity, it is most often selected for zoological gardens and trained seal acts.

  1. California coast houses thousands of seals and sea-lions that are, at present, facing the danger of extinction.
  2. Not very surprisingly, the four species of seals and se-lions off the California coast consume an incredible amount of fish each day, thus infuriating American fishermen.
  3. Seals and sea-lions known to the rookeries off the California coast are of four species.

7.
__________. This spider, named Micrompgale debliemma, has only two eyes where most spiders have six or eight. Unlike most spiders, it does not have lungs but instead absorbs oxygen through its skin. Just three one-hundredth of an inch long, Micromygale is one of the world’s smallest spiders.

  1. Scientists have discovered a spider which is remarkably different from any other known spider.
  2. Scientists have discovered a spider which is in the size of the head of a pin.
  3. Scientists have discovered a spider which inhabits the coastal forested regions of Panama.

8.
________________. Cirrus clouds are thin and delicate, whereas cumulus clouds look like cotton balls. Nimbus clouds are dark and ragged, and stratus clouds appear dull in colour and cover the entire sky.

  1. A stratus cloud on the ground is called fog.
  2. There are four basic cloud types – cirrus, cumulus, nimbus, and stratus.
  3. It is possible to predict the weather by studying clouds.

9.
_________________ For example, King William the First, better known as William the Conqueror, was the first Norman king of England. Perhaps the most famous English writer of all times was William Shakespeare. And who can forget the American hero of the West, Buffalo Bill (William) Cody?

  1. One of the most common boys’ names in English in “William”.
  2. “William” is not only a popular name today but also the name of many famous people in the past.
  3. If your name is William, you have the same name as many other people.

10.
__________________ Straw, which can absorb up to four times its weight in oil, can be thrown on the spill and then be burned. Oil can be broken up and sunk by bither sand, talcum powder, or chalk. Under experimentation, some chemicals have been shown to disperse the spill into droplets, which microbes can then destroy.

  1. There are many ways in which oil spills in the sea can be dealt with.
  2. Contamination of the sea by oil spills is a critical problem.
  3. Wind and wave action can carry oil spills a great distance across the sea.

I.1.B. Ana fikir

Alıştırma 2

En iyi seçeneği bulun.

1.
The first thing to remembered about rattlesnakes is that they can be encountered at almost any altitude. Many people do not expect to find them at altitudes over 6,000 feet, but in the southwestern United States they are encountered as high as 11,000-foot level, and in Mexico up to 14,000 feet. In most parts of the country rattlesnakes hibernate in dens in the winter, but generally they are in the open from March or April to October or December depending on local climate or weather conditions.

The best title for the passage would be __________.

  1. Rattlesnake Fact and Fiction
  2. The Dens of Rattlesnake
  3. Treatment for Rattlesnake Bites
  4. Rattlesnakes at High Altitudes
  5. Places Where Rattlesnakes May Be Encountered

2.
The better kind of cabbage was introduced from Holland into England by Sir Richard Ashley about 1510 and was first taken to Scotland by Cromwell’s soldiers. The cauliflower was brought in from Cyprus about 1603 and broccoli from Italy in the previous century. The finer kinds of bean were introduced in the reign of Henry VIII. It was in 1565 that Sir John Hawkins introduced the potato into Ireland and twenty years later Walter Raleigh carried it into England.

The best title for the passage would be __________.

  1. England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
  2. Food Plants
  3. How the Irish Potato Got to Ireland
  4. The Gift of Sir Walter Raleigh
  5. Introduction of Food Plants into Great Britain

3.
The eight-hour day is universal both in the fields and factories of the Hawaiian sugar plantations. Employees have leisure time to work in their gardens. They make full use of the recreational facilities at the clubs, athletic fields, and swimming pools. Movies are shown nightly at the plantation theatres. Practically all of the homes have radios and a high proportion has washing machines and other modern equipment. One of every three employees owns a car.

The best title for the passage would be __________.

  1. The Eight-Hour Work Day
  2. The Hawaiian Sugar Industry
  3. Schools on Hawaiian Sugar Plantations
  4. Living Conditions in Hawaiian Plantation Communities
  5. Educational Level of Plantation Workers

4.
Maize formed the staff of life of the early North American Indians. One of its remarkable forms was Zuni corn which, in order to resist drought, was planted 18 inches deep. The Pueblo Indians used corn in many of their ceremonials such as the snake dance, and in their corn planting and harvesting they observed certain rituals handed down from their forefathers. The prayers for rain and the methods of cultivation of the maize in separated clumps argue for a very ancient use of this valuable plant.

The best title for the passage would be __________.

  1. Cultivation and Use of Corn by Early North American Indians.
  2. Early American Food Plants.
  3. The Use of Corn in Indian Ceremonials
  4. The Preservation of Corn by Drying
  5. The Planting of Zuni Corn

5.
We are accustomed to the thought that geographic conditions have profoundly influenced wars in the past. Washington’s army escaped the British trap in New York because of a fog. Napoleon conquered all but ‘Generals January and February’ in his advance against Russia. The Valley of Shenandoah and the Blue Ridge had important bearings on our Civil War. The great distance of the Philippines form home and the tropic character of its climate were important factors in our war with the Filipinos.

The best title for the passage would be __________.

  1. Our Changing Climate
  2. Generals January and February
  3. Geographic Influences on Wars of the Past
  4. Escape in a Fog
  5. The Importance of Geographic Factors

6.
Of a temperate, sub-alpine climate, Austria has approximately the same seasons as New York. However, it rarely becomes either uncomfortably hot or bitingly cold, and the seasons slip gradually from one to another without abrupt temperature changes. From late October to mid-December the countryside has heavy rains, but Vienna is always pleasant. In the mountain regions snow begins to fall in mid-November; the air is crisp, cool, and clear, and it is usually sunny. The spring climate in the mountains makes Austria a skier’s paradise.

The best title for the passage would be __________.

  1. Austria as a Skier’s Paradise
  2. The Climate of Southeastern Europe
  3. Abrupt Temperature Changes in Austria
  4. The Climate of Austria
  5. Snowfall and Rainfall in Austria

Alıştırma 3

Soruları yanıtlayın.

1.
One of the commonest beliefs about reptiles concerns the existence of a “hoop snake”. This reptile is supposed to grasp its tail in its mouth and roll along at terrific speed. Yet science declares no such creature exists. There is also a belief among cowboys and hunters that they can protect their camps by stretching horsehair ropes around them, that the prickly hairs will repel any snakes – particularly rattlers. Actually, rattlers crawl over ropes as if they didn’t exist. Like most nature “fables” there is a shred of truth here, but it has been stretched out of all proportion. It is probable that snakes detect the human odour and, since they fear humans, turn and crawl away. There are many other “whoppers” just as fantastic, but these examples show why the wide spread belief in them is unjustified.

1. Choose the best topic.

  1. The Scientific Study of Reptiles.
  2. Reptiles and Humans.
  3. Tall Tales About Reptiles.
  4. The Hoop Snake Fable.

2. Choose the best central thought.

  1. There is no justification for many widespread beliefs about snakes.
  2. Science states that no such creature as the “hoop snake” exists.
  3. Science states that snakes fear humans and usually crawl away from them.
  4. Science finds that rattlers crawl over hair ropes as if they were not there.

2.
Scientific forestry is one example of the way that conservation works for the good of the country. As trees are cut down for industry, new ones are planted to replace them. Deadwood, diseased trees, and harmful shrubs are removed. In replanting, foresters consider not only the fitness of a tree for climate and soil, but also its usefulness to man. For this reason the new trees are often higher in quality than the old. Barring waste and careless fires, we should have trees in plenty to take care of the future.

Choose the best topic.

  1. Conservation for the Future.
  2. The Work of Scientific Forestry.
  3. The Importance of Forest Fire Prevention.
  4. New Forests for Old.

Choose the best central thought.

  1. Thanks to scientific forestry, we should have improved trees in sufficient quantity to take care of the future.
  2. Before new trees are planted, deadwood, diseased trees, and harmful shrubs should be removed.
  3. Conservation works for the good of the country by improving both quality and quantity of all its natural resources.
  4. The trees now growing are superior in number to the old ones cut down by industry.

3.
We think of the United States as a rich and plentiful nation. It is; but it isn’t self-sufficient. Its reliance on foreign sources is apparent every day in the year. Take sugar. Cane sugar ranks first in value among imported foodstuffs. Or take coffee. Coffee drinking couldn’t be an American habit if the United States cut off its imports from Brazil. People wouldn’t have their newspaper without printing ink, and they get much of that from Canada. The chief source of raw silk is Japan. A wrist watch may or may not be a Swiss watch, but the inner movements are probably imported. Ninety per cent of them are.

Choose the best central thought.

  1. Although the U.S. is a rich and powerful nation, it depends upon foreign sources for most of its raw materials.
  2. The reliance of the U.S. on foreign sources is great; it imports more than it exports.
  3. The U.S. is a rich and plentiful nation; nevertheless, it relies upon foreign sources for many commodities.
  4. Ninety per cent of watches and similar items are imported.

I.2. METNİN BİR BÖLÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

I.2.A. Metinde var olana yönelik

a) Değinme sözcükleri.

Alıştırma 4

Aşağıda verilen tümcelerin her birinde bir değinme sözcüğü bulunmakta. Bu alıştırmada koyu yazılı olarak verilen değinme sözcüklerini inceleyin.

  1. Scott Fitzgerald, who first introduced him to a publisher, was one of the few contemporary writers that Hemingway did not turn against.
  2. Catching sight of him in a supermarket one day, Archer followed the man with the limp to an apartment in a run-down neighbourhood.
  3. The award was presented to the playwright by the Chairman of the Committee, who said of him that he brought pleasure to literally millions of theatergoers and television viewers.
  4. While Jane was persuading Mary to ask her for the keys to the car, Mrs. Jones happened to be listening at the door and quickly went downstairs and out of the house.
  5. Looking at her closely for the first time in months, Elizabeth realized sadly that the woman was indeed beginning to grow old.
  6. Violet rushed past the general’s daughter, strode to the door of the drawing room, and turned to throw her a look of withering scorn before slamming the door with grim satisfaction.
  7. Knowing them well, the Hammonds realized that the Shepherds were unlikely to be on time to meet their guests.
  8. Doctors treating patients with diet pills usually warn them of the dangers of addiction.
  9. Though it is not usually difficult to understand them, stutterers often cause parents a lot of worries.
  10. Intrigued by insects of all kinds, the youngsters spent hours trapping and studying them.
  11. Its usefulness was a thing of the past, but his first bicycle continued to stand in the corner of his bedroom.
  12. The defendants insisted on addressing the members of the jury, thus disregarding the advice of their lawyers.
  13. Jean, along with her sisters Doris and May, baked cakes for the annual contest at the country fair. Jean was sorry hers lost, but happy that Doris won a ribbon for her entry.
  14. The English surprisingly beat the French at the battle of Agincourt in 1415 because theirs were the most disciplined archers.
  15. The opportunity to sample several possible majors as well as greater career flexibility after graduation are two reasons why students choose a liberal arts college; these are not the only ones, however.
  16. Signs of ageing are unavoidable, but those that can be disguised are of particular interest to cosmetic companies.
  17. The proposals were discussed at length by the members of the committee, with only one of them emerging intact.
  18. Note that the instructions preceding the questions encourage students to concentrate only on the ones they feel they understand.
  19. The NASA scientists and astronauts were equally excited by Al Shepherd’s first sub-orbital flight and by John Glenn’s orbital journey, but it was the latter which caught the attention of the American public.
  20. Both the government and the private sector fund basic and applied research, but grants for the former tend to be relatively restricted in times of economic difficulties.

b) Bağlantı sözcükleri.

Alıştırma 5

Verilen tümceyi izleyebilecek en iyi seçeneği belirleyin.

Örnek.

Glimpses in to the prenatal world via ultrasound imaging occasionally show behaviour such as

A) the development of the central nervous system.
B) the sex of the baby to be.
C) a fetus sucking its thumb. *

1. In ancient times, glass was very important because people valued it as much as they did precious stones. However, 
  1. it can be made to stand pressure and hardware if additional chemical are put into it during production phases.
  2. it is so common today that we hardly take any notice of it.
  3. some glass cups have been found as old as 4.000 years old.
2. Even though English is the largest of all languages, 
  1. there are words coined to describe or name new inventions, discoveries, or manufactured products.
  2. they are constantly adding new words.
  3. they turn people’s names into words – pasteurise honours a French scientist and atlas, a Greek god.
3. In the keeping of road maps up to date, many changes are made necessary by urban expansion and by extensive highway construction programs, including
  1. engineers, constructors and other people involved in construction business.
  2. the relocation of roads, new routes, and freeway developments.
  3. the rewriting of rules for using parking meters and newly set-up parking lots.
4. Everything from chairs and fishing poles to rope and paper can be made from bamboo. Equally important, 
  1. this giant grass grows in warm climates.
  2. a variety of food can be made from this giant grass.
  3. preserved bamboo shoots can be used in soups instead of fresh ones.
5. In the 1940s, when many of today’s astronauts hadn’t even born, comic strip detective Dick Tracy fought crime in an atomic powered vehicle. In addition to that, 
  1. he used lasers to process gold and a two-way writs TV for communication.
  2. Dick Tracy was a very popular comic strip in the U.S.
  3. many of today’s astronauts have used a kind of atomic-powered space vehicle.

c) Karmaşık yapılar.

Alıştırma 6

Örneğe bakarak, tümceleri daha basit ve kısa parçacıklar halinde yeniden oluşturun.

Örnek:

The Indians indulged in the games of their race while the English performed a military drill for the entertainment of their guests.

a. The Indians indulged in the games of their race.

b. In the meantime, the English performed a military drill.

c. They (= The English) did this drill for the entertainment of their guests (=Indians).
 
 

  1. Everyone understands what it is to have a comfortable sense of familiarity with a subject and then, when he tries to write, to find that he can give no satisfactory account of his knowledge.
  2. In 1900 everybody thought of automobiles as playthings of the rich and of people who enjoyed taking chances with an uncertain machine that might wreck them.
  3. A man-eating tiger is a tiger that has been forced by circumstances beyond its control to adopt a diet strange to it.
  4. Since the ancient Egyptians were protected by deserts and had no powerful neighbours to threaten them, they lived in a world strictly of their own making.
  5. Now and then a girl finds a position attractive only if it provides an opportunity for her to be of real service to other human beings and she believes that in her modest way an airline hostess has a chance to be of real help to travellers.
  6. The advantages of such a bridge being built across the point where the two rives join far outweigh the disadvantages of the cost and labour it will entail.
  7. The problem of what to do with old razor blades is said to have been solved in Scotland: it seems they still shave with them.

Alıştırma 7

Verilen tümcenin taşıdığı anlamı yeniden ifade eden seçeneği bulun.

Örnek.

The bulk of Kafka’s writings was not published until after his early death from tuberculosis.

  1. It was not until after Kafka’s early death from tuberculosis that the bulk of his writings was published. *
  2. After the bulk of his writings was published, Kafka died an early death from tuberculosis.
  3. After Kafka had written the bulk of his published writings, he met with an early death from tuberculosis.
  4. An early death from tuberculosis kept Kafka from publishing the bulk of his writings.
  5. It was only after the bulk of his writings had been published that Kafka died an early death from tuberculosis.
1. Gorillas, which are vegetarians, have been observed to demonstrate gentle behaviour toward small creatures in the wild. 
  1. It has been observed in the wild that gorillas, by nature vegetarians, treat small animals gently.
  2. Observation reveals that those gorillas that treat small creatures gently in the wild are only the vegetarian ones.
  3. Only vegetarian gorillas have been observed as demonstrating gentle behaviour toward small creatures in the wild.
  4. Small creatures in the wild have observed as behaving gently and demonstratively toward gorillas.
  5. Vegetarians have been observed to demonstrate gentle behaviour toward gorillas and small creatures in the wild.
2. Medical authorities have been reluctant to support the findings of some nutritionists that vitamin C given in large dose can prevent the common cold. 
  1. According to nutritionists and some medical authorities, the common cold can be prevented by giving large doses of vitamin C.
  2. Medical authorities have not doubt that the findings by some nutritionists that large doses of vitamin C is likely to prevent the common cold is true.
  3. Medical authorities support the nutritionists’ views about the value of vitamin C in preventing the common cold.
  4. Nutritionists have found that medical authorities are not in favour of using vitamin C to prevent the common cold.
  5. Some nutritionists have found that large doses of vitamin C can prevent the common cold, but this has not been completely accepted by medical authorities.
3. While working as a fire fighter at the University of Mississippi, William Faulkner submitted 37 stories to magazines, six of which were accepted. 
  1. Faulkner published 37 stories in magazines, six of which were accepted by the University of Mississippi.
  2. Faulkner wrote six out of 37 stories after accepting a job as a fire fighter at the University of Mississippi.
  3. Of the 37 stories that Faulkner wrote while working at the University of Mississippi as a fire fighter, six became published in magazines.
  4. Of the 37 stories that Faulkner wrote, six were published in the magazines of the University of Mississippi while he worked as a fire fighter.
  5. The six accepted stories by Faulkner were about his job as a fire fighter at the University of Mississippi.

I.2.B. Metinde var olmayana yönelik

Alıştırma 8

Her bir metni ve metni izleyen tümceleri okuyun. Metni izleyen tümceler metinde verilen bilgilere göre doğruysa D, yanlışsa Y ile işaretleyin.

Örnek.

The earliest form of dueling was the clash of mounted knights armed with lances in medieval tournaments. These duels were often purely sporting affairs in which special nonlethal lances were used. They provided entertainment for the spectators and kept the knight in good condition for battle. In Elizabethan days, duels no longer took place on horseback, and the lance was exchanged for a sword and dagger. The sword was held in the right hand and used for attacking, while the dagger was held in the left hand and used for defence. Dueling with swords as a means to decide a point of honour became obsolete with the invention of pistols. Pistols brought about a whole new set of rules and etiquette to that form of duelling.

A duel is a battle between armies of knights on horseback. Y
The knights used lances to fight their duels. D
Spectators enjoyed watching knights kill other knights in tournaments. Y
Fighting duels was a good way for knights to maintain their physical fitness. D
It became very dishonourable to duel with swords after the invention of pistols. Y

1.

The Explorers is a delightful book. It is delightful for its vivid descriptions of the fifteenth century seamen who set out to explore the unknown Atlantic and for its colourful English. It is delightful also for the charming sketches included here and there by a most unusual artist-author.

¾ The seamen described in the book speak colourful English.

¾ The beautiful drawings that are present in the book describe both Atlantic and England.

2.

Dialogue adds variety to a story and thus stimulates the reader’s interest. It makes the action seem real and may throw light on the characters and the circumstances. In real life a word or speech may be quite as important as an act.

¾ Sometimes, dialogue bears the same as or even more importance than an action.

3.

There are many different ways of preserving history. The ancient Egyptians carved theirs in stone. The Dead Sea Scrolls were written on leather and parchment. Recently, history has been recorded not only on paper, but also on film, phonograph discs, and tape.

¾ The main aim of this passage is to enumerate ways of preserving history in ancient times and the present.

4.

One of the prime objects of education is to foster a taste for reading and to cultivate a discriminating appreciation of books. Accordingly every educated person needs the power to express his opinion of what he reads. Such an opinion is called a criticism.

¾ In education, one main aim is that pupils should like reading and enjoying books.
¾ Criticism, by definition, is an opinion expressed on what has been read.

5.

When, how, or whence the Indians came to America we do not know for certain. In times more recent, men from Asia have crossed Bering Strait on the ice to Alaska in pursuit of fur-bearing animals. Many centuries ago it would have been just as easy for other Asiatics to have made the journey.

¾ Probably, those Asian people that crossed Bering Strait in recent times are not the only ones that used this route to America.

6.

A single glove at the scene of a murder may provide valuable clues for the police. For one thing, the size and style may suggest the build of the criminal and his way of life; one glove may direct the search toward a large man accustomed to driving a truck, another may suggest a small, dapper man of the ‘society’ type. For another, the hairs on a glove when placed under a microscope may provide important information. If they match those of the victim, they may link the owner to the crime. If not, they may give away the criminal’s own hair colour or, perhaps, the fact that he has been where there are farm animals. Finally, bits of hay, grains of soil, tiny metal fragments, and even oily threads of cloth are often invaluable in indicating the kind of place where the murderer lives or works.

¾ The passage groups the valuable services of a single small object for the police under three main topics.
¾ The size of a single glove may well provide the police with information about the building in which the murder has been committed.

II. DOĞRUDAN YANITLANAMAYAN SORULAR

II.1. METNİN TÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

II.1.A. Metnin / Yazarın ifade tonu

Alıştırma 9

Metin ile ilgili soruyu yanıtlayın.

The outlook for the expansion of the silk-producing business in the United States is not bright there is no obvious reason why it should. In the first place, the silkworm requires hour-by-hour human care, and Americans, by disposition, are not suited to the work. Again, there is a strong belief that each country should specialise in those countries best suited to her geography and her culture. Why, then, should Americans attempt to build on a large industry which is well suited to Japan and to their South American neighbour, Brazil? And finally, nylon has proved superior to silk for many purposes, and nylon is produced in the States in quantity.

The tone of the passage is _________.

A) protesting
B) humorous
C) informational
D) matter-of-factly
E) sarcastic

II.1.B. Yazarın amacı

Alıştırma 10

Doğru seçeneği belirleyin.

Örnek.

Left-handed people suffer more from stress than their right-handed peers, according to a study of 1.100 adults by University of Michigan researchers. As a result, they smoke and drink more. Fifty-five percent of the lefties smoked, whereas fewer than half of the righties smoked. Furthermore, the lefties consumed more alcohol per year than their right-handed counterparts.

The author’s intent is ….. .

A) to show the effects of smoking and drinking on left-handed people
B) to encourage people to stop drinking and smoking, especially if they are left-handed
C) to show that left-handed people suffer more from stress than right-handed people *
D) to criticize the way left-handed people smoke and drink
E) to encourage left-handed people to try and become right-handed individuals

1.

When the world was young, the opportunity for inventing new words must have been unlimited. Even then, however, the inventor’s task was less than half accomplished when he had emitted the new sound. Before he could regard his task as complete, he must induce his neighbours to use the sound as he had used it. Here we may draw on modern experience. The child playing in the sand invents a word for the pebbles that fill his hand. The new words is “pocos”. Does society adopt this word because it has been duly invented? Not at all. Society has an expression of its own for the designation of pebbles. So the child’s word “pocos” lingers for a time in the tolerant memory of the immediate family and then passes into oblivion.

The chief function of the paragraph is ____________.

A) to enumerate details
B) to tell a story
C) to explain
D) to contrast
E) to compare

2.

One application of the use of radioactive materials of particular interest to westerners is the use of radio cobalt to measure the depth of the snowpack in the Sierra Nevadas. For some years a group of co-operating agencies has taken measurements of snow depths throughout the range in order to determine the amount of run-off that will swell the rivers of the lowlands in spring and summer. This requires laborious excursions on snowshoes and skis by snow surveyors. The radio cobalt installation now being tested at the Sierra Nevada Snow Laboratory may eliminate most of this drudgery. A tube of radio cobalt is placed at ground level and its radiations are picked up by a detector directly above it. As snow accumulates, the strength of the signal varies with the quantity of water stored in the pack. Theoretically, a network of these installations would make it possible to keep track of the snow from one central station.
 

1. The main function of the paragraph is _________.

A) to arrive at a definition
B) to argue a controversial point
C) to recount in correct time order
D) to explain
E) to defend a presumably harmful material

2. Choose the best topic.

A) Peacetime Uses of Radioactive Materials.
B) Measuring the Snowpack with Radio Cobalt.
C) Radio Cobalt Uses.
D) The Sierra Nevada Snow Laboratory.
E) New Experiments in Nevada Mountains.

3. What is the principle behind the experiment?

A) As it is used, radioactive cobalt offers no radiation danger to the snow surveyors.
B) Radioactive cobalt helps measure the quantity of water stored in a snow pack.
C) Radioactive cobalt increases the rate at which the snowpack melts.
D) The amount of run-off from the snowpack measures the amount of radioactive cobalt.
E) The strength of the signal from the radioactive cobalt indicates the amount of snow in the snowpack.

4. From the paragraph, which conclusion is justified?

A) Despite today’s preference for brain power rather than muscle power, the old-fashioned method of measuring the snowpack will probably prove better than the new one.
B) Radio cobalt installations may be expected to measure the snowpack more effectively than did the old method.
C) The experiment has shown definitely that a network of installations can measure the snowpack from one central station.
D) The use of radioactive cobalt for measuring the snowpack may endanger the lives of ski enthusiasts.
E) The use of radioactive cobalt in scientific experiments is less harmful than most people think it is.

II.1.C. Ortam

Alıştırma 11

Soruyu yanıtlayın.

The Black-Tailed Deer inhabits the forests along the Pacific Coast of North America from southern Alaska to southern California. In summer it is covered by a short reddish coat which it sheds as the season advances. The new coat, known as the ‘blue coat’, gradually lengthens and turns grey with the approach of winter. Each year the deer sheds its antlers, dropping them off from the skull from the base of the horn. New antlers sprout in the early spring. They are covered at first with skin and fur known as ‘velvet’, but when they have attained full growth and have hardened, the animal polishes away the ‘velvet’ against shrubs and trees. The common superstition that the number of points on the antlers indicates the age of the deer is quite without foundation.

This passage may have been taken from _____.

A) a weekend magazine
B) a natural park information service brochure
C) a talk on the natural beauties of Alaska and its surrounding mountains
D) a writing on the development of antlers on various animals
E) a book on various superstitions related with animals and their life

II.2. METNİN BİR BÖLÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

II.2.A. İma edilen

Alıştırma 12

Aşağıda verilen metinlerin ardından ikişer tümce gelmekte. Kimi durumlarda bu tümceler

(a) metinde verilen bilgilerin yeniden ifadesi,
(b) metinde ima edilen ama açıkça verilmeyen bilgilerin ifadesi,
(c) metinde verilen bilgiler bakımından yanlış.

Buna göre, örneğe bakarak, tümceleri (a), (b) ya da (c) ile işaretleyin.

Örnek:

In recent years there have been many reports of a growing impatience with psychiatry, with its seeming foreverness, its high cost, its debatable results, and its vague, esoteric terms. To many people it is like a blind man in a dark room looking for a black cat that is not there. The magazines and mental health associations say psychiatric treatment is a good thing, but what it is or what it accomplishes has not been made clear.

— Even mental health associations have not been able to demonstrate the value of psychiatry. (b)
— People are beginning to doubt the value of psychiatry. (a)

1.

The search for ways of preserving foods is not new. Primitive man learned that he could make foods last by drying them. The Indians, for example, hung buffalo and deer meat in the sun. The greatest single advance began in 1800 when a Frenchman, Nicolas Appert, discovered that he could preserve certain foods by sealing them in jars and keeping the air from them. The process was the beginning of the vast canning industry which brings us a variety of foods in all seasons. Pasteurising is another process which delays spoilage; it is of great importance to the dairy industry. Foods like apricots, prunes, peaches, and apples are often preserved by drying. The use of chemicals is another method, and some foods are cooked with sugar. But recently the use of frozen food cabinets has grown tremendously and more foods than ever before are now being processed by freezing.

— Frozen food is likely to far exceed the use of other methods of preserving food.
— Drying is a method that used to be used until recently.

2.

The common English sparrows are a nuisance, destroying the buds of trees and many fruits while are ripening. They are practically useless as destroyers of harmful insects. They cause great losses in grain fields and they drive away our song birds.

— Sparrows are harmful for men in many aspects.
— Farmers do not like sparrows very much.

3.

Present methods of providing a water supply low in disease germs are so successful that there is now little danger from water-carried diseases in most American and European cities. A large proportion of people who have become ill with typhoid have been infected while outside the city.

— In the country, the process of disinfecting drinking water is not effective as it is in cities.
— Germs are what cause typhoid.

4.

Big trees can be beautiful. But if they are planted in narrow areas they can lift sidewalks and break curbs. Expensive repairs to sewer systems often result when large trees spread their roots. Overhead they may disrupt electric, telephone, and fire-alarm signal lines.

— City planners should be careful before they decide on the number of trees to be planted in a certain area.
— In cases when the tree is harmful for a city’s infrastructure, the solution seems to cut them down.

Alıştırma 13

Verilen kısa metinlerin hemen altında bir çıkarım bulunmakta. Bu çıkarımın metnin neresinden alınabileceğini belirleyin.

Örnek.

Is it true that crime doesn’t pay? Although it is impossible to report every dollar that was generated into the American economy by Watergate, figures pointed out at what could be termed a first-class growth industry. Fees, royalties, fines, bills, and other miscellaneous payments added up into the millions of dollars moving around the U.S. economy.

It can be inferred from the passage that Watergate is the name of a crime that took place in the U.S.A.

1.

The great temple of Borobudur is a stepped pyramid of unmortared andesite and basalt volcanic stone, standing 403 feet square and 105 feet high. This holy place lay abandoned and forgotten for more than 800 years after a devastating earthquake and an eruption of one of the four surrounding volcanoes caused its population to flee in 1006. Besides earthquakes and volcanoes, torrential rains, encroaching tropical vegetation, and time have all taken their toll.

It can be inferred from the passage that the temple of Borobudur is in ruins.

2.

Characteristics of tropical rain forests are high and steady levels of heat and moisture, as well as a wide variety of organisms. It is believed that two-thirds of all species live in tropics, and half of those live in the tropical rain forests. Nowhere else, except perhaps the tropical coral reefs, is nature so great in its diversity of organisms and complex in its biological interaction.

It can be inferred from the passage that tropical coral reefs contain a wide variety of organisms.

3.

Even though historians think that ice-skating has been a sport for the last 2,000 years, it is within the last five decades that skating has gained recognition as a form of art. Champion athletes combine new heights of athleticism with the elegance of dance in what is called figure skating. Ice skaters performing daring jumps in flamboyant costumes have brought ballet to the ice rink. Ice-skating is now seen as an exciting and innovative sport that has won millions of admirers.

It can be inferred from the passage that ice skaters are both athletes and artists.

Alıştırma 14

Tümce sonrasında verilen ifade, o tümceden bir çıkarım olabilir mi?

Örnek.

Charles F. Richter helped devise a scale that is universally used to measure the magnitute of earthquakes.

Can it inferred that the Richter scale was named for a devastating earthquake? HAYIR

1.

Tattooing a thin dark line along the upper and lower eyelids to replace eyeliner is an operation which appeals to athletic women who do not want to wear eyeliner that smears.

Can it be inferred that athletic women are lazy about putting on cosmetics?

2.

For people whose nerves have been damaged by illness of injuries, actions such as walking or grasping an object may be impossible.

Can it inferred that the nervous system is important for muscle control?

3.

Of the twelve sulfite-associated deaths, one was caused by wine, one by beer, and one by hashed potatoes; the rest were linked to fresh fruits or vegetables.

Can it be inferred that nine people died from sulfite-contaminated fresh foods?

4.

Bifocal lens wearers may soon be able to use contact lenses that take advantage of the way the eye reacts to light.

Can it be inferred that people who need bifocals presently use contact lenses?

5.

Each day, more and more communities discover that they have been living near dumps or on top of ground that has been contaminated by toxic chemicals.

Can it inferred that communities are not always told when and where toxic wastes are being disposed?

II.2.B. Metinden önce/sonra gelen

Alıştırma 15

Aşağıdaki metinlerden önce/sonra nelerden sözedilmiş olabileceğini bulun.

1.

One example is the new breed of cattle being developed by the Brazilians and specially adapted to withstand the pests and the climate of the tropics. The Brazilians today are developing their own civilisation – not a European civilisation, but one which is adapted to the tropical climate, tropical vegetation, tropical light, and tropical colours. And so it is that they are not only working on a new breed of cattle, but also on a new type of grass that is suitable to feed them.

What information is probably in the paragraph preceding the passage?

— Cattle breeding worldwide.
— Agricultural developments in a certain country.

2.

What, then, is amnesia? If you say only that it is loss of memory, you include in the group of amnesiacs any man who forgets his wife’s birthday or goes off to the office without his wristwatch. Actually, amnesia is something a bit more sinister. It is loss of memory, to be sure, but it is the sort brought on by injury, overwork, worry, or a nasty blow on the head.

What information is probably in the paragraph preceding the passage?

— Detailed information about amnesia.
— General outline of amnesia.

3.

During the presidency of George Washington, dwelling houses of the better sort were built of brick, and for the most part, their furniture, china, and silver were imported from Europe. In the towns and cities of that day the narrow streets had no lights, no sewers, and no pavements.

What information is probably in the paragraph preceding the passage?

— A brief outline of housing in America before the George Washington period.
— Brief information about the presidency of George Washington and his efforts in having better dwelling houses built.

4.

While some of the reasons for becoming an airline hostess are shallow and superficial, others are sound and well-considered. A young woman may choose the career because she enjoys flying and likes the actual work involved. Or she may look upon the job as a pleasant and profitable way to see the world and learn. Now and then a girl finds a position attractive only if it provides an opportunity for her to be of real service to other human beings and she believes that in her modest way an airline hostess has a chance to be of real help to travellers. Finally, after a careful appraisal of herself, the young lady may come to the conclusion that the position offers a person of her talents and interests the best opportunity for self-expression.

The paragraph following the passage most likely presents _____.

— shallow reasons for becoming an airline hostess.
— financial benefits and also some negative aspects of being an airline hostess.

5.

Costs were low that year and the output high. There was a good man for every job and the market remained firm. There were no losses by fire. All in all it was the best year in the country’s history.

Most likely, the last sentence of the paragraph preceding this one mentioned _____.

— a year.
— a company.

6.

There are deer in abundance here. The whole area is great country for hunters and fishermen. There are bear, occasional mountain lions, and coyotes. To the east there are streams full of trout, and there are ducks, geese, and a few pheasants.

Most likely, the last sentence of the paragraph preceding this one mentioned _____.

— a holiday place for those who like nature.
— a holiday place for those who like hunting.

7.

Penicillin is one of the greatest of the wonder drugs. It has saved thousands of lives already and will save many more in the future. But it has no effect whatever on the bulk of the ills of man and of beast. Good as it is, it is certainly not a cure-all.

The paragraph following the passage most likely presents _____.

— other drugs that are effective in fields that penicillin fails.
— the number of diseases on which penicillin has proved effective.

8.

At the age of thirteen Alexander Hamilton was an orphan because of the death of his mother and the desertion of his father. He had no inheritance. His older brother, a carpenter, could afford no help, and his mother’s family, once rich, was breaking up. During the period of his boyhood, therefore, Hamilton was more in need of assistance than most.

The paragraph following the passage most likely presents _____.

— the help Hamilton got from people other than his own family.
— the essential need of assistance from which Hamilton suffered a lot.

II.2.C. Sözcük anlamı

Alıştırma 16

Bu alıştırmada, sözlük kullanmadan, tümce içinde koyu yazılı olarak verilen sözcüğün anlamını seçenekler içinden bulmaya çalışın. İnceleyeceğiniz sözcükler şunlar:

console, adamant, vague, regimentation, gingerly, curb, in vain, treacherous, thrive, compelled

1. Taste is the most important thing for me. If I have eaten a poor meal, nothing will console me. 

A. doyurmak
B. üzmek
C. aç bırakmak
D. avundurmak
E. sevindirmek

2. No matter how hard I tried to convince Tom to travel Chicago by train, he was adamant in his desire to drive there in his own car even though it would cost him a fortune. 

A. kararsız
B. kararlı
C. isteksiz
D. tepkisel
E. anlayışlı

3. “It sounds translation” is a vague expression in that ten different people will bring ten different explanations as to what they mean by it. 

A. kesin
B. özel
C. belirsiz
D. kusurlu
E. yeterli

4. He was not fit for military service. The rigid schedule, long sleepless hours, various responsibilities to bear and exhausting daily exercises were obviously too much for him. Finally, when he realized that he could no longer tolerate this regimentation, he started making plans to escape as far a place as he could. 

A. disiplin
B. ödeme
C. tolerans
D. talim
E. sorumluluk

5. Because he knew that his wife could never go back to sleep again in case she woke up, John removed the bed-clothes gingerly to get up for a glass of water. 

A. uykulu bir halde
B. tamamen
C. dikkatle
D. bir an önce
E. el yordamı ile

6. The new boss does not aim to prevent smoking. What he wants to do is to curb cigarette smoking by asking smokers to smoke in certain rooms only. 

A. cezalandırmak
B. artırmak
C. engellemek
D. denetlemek
E. cazip kılmak

7. We tried in vain to learn the reason behind this decision. The spokesman did not say a single word on it. 

A. belli belirsiz
B. bir arada
C. aslında
D. boşuna
E. başarıyla

8. These days, the weather has been quite treacherous; because of its sudden changes many people cannot decide what to wear before they leave home for work. 

A. yağışlı
B. değişken
C. sabit
D. bozuk
E. tahmin edilebilir

9. All sub-tropic plants need plenty of sunlight. The more sunlight they get, the more they will thrive

A. renklenmek
B. solmak
C. ölmek
D. sulanmak
E. serpilmek

10. She did not know what would happen if they suddenly caught her secretly watching them, but her curiosity compelled her to take one last look through the key hole. 

A. korkuttu
B. zorladı
C. emretti
D. engelledi
E. destekledi

Alıştırma 17

Bu alıştırma ile, anlam tahmin konusundaki mevcut bilginizi ölçün. Önce aşağıda verilen sözcükleri okuyun.

savage, merge, attain, deadline, solitude, topple, reverse, dislodge

Bu sözcüklerin tümce içinde nasıl kullanıldıklarına bakın ve anlamlarını tahmin etmeye çalışın. Bunu yaparken de sözlük kullanmayın !

  1. SKEGNESS, England (Reuter) – Two pet Alsatian dogs savaged a six-year-old girl to death yesterday, police said.
  2. TEL AVIV (AP) – Iraq and Syria have reportedly agreed to merge under a single leader and combine their armies on Israel’s northeastern border.
  3. Although it is evident that they often make priceless contributions to our society through their labour, so far women have not been able to attain the social and economic status that should be theirs.
  4. Those who live in areas not-so-close to the equator are often impatient with those who live closer to the equator. While people in hot countries do not seem to care much about time, others take deadlines very seriously.
  5. Personally, I am not so fond of being with people. I prefer solitude.
  6. The thrones of the world have toppled one by one. But Britain’s still stands regally.
  7. The same scare stories were spread in Norway during their referendum. Norwegians were told they would be ruined if they remained free. What happened? Exactly the reverse. Since Norway had the good sense to say “No”, its economy has developed as never before.
  8. A group of teenagers have this week shown a determination to resist the decision of the local council to move them from their present home. The youngsters have set up a barricade against any attempt to dislodge them from the house they have come to regard as home.

Alıştırma 18

Paragrafı en iyi tamamlayan seçeneği bulun.

1.

In youth, most people maintain that black is black, white is white, and grey does not exist. It is only gradually that experience teaches us that there is no absolute evil, so there is no absolute good. Until this lesson is learned, children react either completely for or against everything they face, and tolerance is something which they _______________.
 

A) respect in their parents
B) wish they possessed
C) cannot comprehend
D) have wholly lost

2.

Copper is a fairly soft metal and it is easily moulded even when it is cold. It was the first metal that primitive man learned to use in making tools. Copper relics have been found that are older then recorded history. Copper is a lot more extensively used than any other metal except iron. This positive aspect is further supported by the fact that copper is not _______________.
 

A) expensive
B) available
C) soft
D) plentiful

3.

Ancient astronomers recognized that the planets were different from the stars. The name planet was given to those heavenly bodies which constantly change their positions with reference to the stars, because planet comes from the Greek word that means _______________.

 
A) bright
B) astronomical
C) wandering
D) reflecting

4.

The power of propaganda lies largely in the swiftness of its action. Like an odourless but deadly cloud, it seeps into the atmosphere until it has _______________.
 

A) overpowered all who are exposed to it
B) blended harmlessly with the air
C) been recognised and counteracted
D) created the opposite of its intended effect

5.

Scarcely any create that lives and breathes is as universally hated as the rat. Rats are carriers of many diseases. They give some service as scavengers, but this is overbalanced by their _______________.

 
A) harmful activities
B) popularity as pets
C) odd appearance
D) sanitary value

6.

One factor which affects the rate of chemical change is temperature. With few exceptions, an increase in temperature increases the rate of a chemical reaction. Most reactions at the temperature of boiling water are hundreds of times as fast as at room temperature. To slow down changes in foods, our kitchens are equipped with ______________.
 

A) thermometers
B) refrigerators
C) ventilators
D) fire alarms

7.

Ideas are essential in the diet of business. A business gets hungry just as a man does. A man cannot live without food, and a business cannot advance without _______________.
 

A) ideas
B) influence
C) tradition
D) budgeting

8.

Most solids expand when their temperature rises. Because of this, concrete highways are made in sections that do not touch. The spaces between the sections are filled with tar, which oozes from the cracks in hot weather. If the roads were not made in sections, the expansion of the solid concrete in hot weather would cause it to _______________.
 

A) expand
B) meet
C) buckle
D) contract

9.

Coal formation began millions of years ago when giant plants died and formed a decayed vegetable matter called peat. Mud and sand covered the peat when large areas of earth sank below the ocean. Pressure and heat from water, sand, and mud caused the peat to form coal. The greater the depth of the earth above the peat, the greater the pressure of the peat and harder the coal. Anthracite, the hardest grade of coal, usually lies in the coal beds that are ______________.
 

A) easiest to mine
B) in greatest demand
C) most plentiful
D) deepest

10.

Alfred Bernhard Nobel (1833-96) was a Swedish chemist who invented dynamite and some other chemicals. He became very wealthy and in his will set up a large fund to pay annual awards in the five fields of physics, chemistry, physiology of medicine, literature, and international peace. The prizes average about $40,000, and aside from this it is a great honour to receive _______________.
 

A) $40,000
B) such a legacy
C) the Nobel professorship
D) a Nobel prize

11.

Of all the lawbreakers in the thirties, only about 15 percent were ever arrested, 2 percent convicted, and 1 percent actually punished. One of the most pressing social problems was _______________.
 

A) lax law enforcement
B) overcrowded prisons
C) ambiguous laws
D) prohibition violators

12.

The total volume of long-distance trade during the Middle Ages was relatively small. Most areas where people lived were self-sufficient in the matter of the necessities of life. Transport was expensive and slow, whether by land or by sea. Goods that were carried in international trade were, for the most part, _______________.
 

A) breadstuffs
B) luxury items
C) woollen cloth
D) oriental imports

13.

It is an obvious and familiar fact that the younger a child, the less individually differentiated he is. Physically, all newborn children are _______________.
 

A) extremely active
B) difficult to manage
C) very much like their parents
D) very much alike

14.

The climate in equatorial regions is uniform throughout the year. There is nothing that can be called _______________.
 

A) a tropical climate
B) a change of season
C) the beginning of the year
D) the heat of the noonday

15.

During the last half of the nineteenth century, the United States and Germany made rapid progress in industrialization. Their deposits of coal and iron – essential factors in developing industry – aided them in becoming _______________.
 

A) self-sufficient
B) cultural centres
C) manufacturing centres
D) democracies

16.

Scientists are constantly working to refine man’s accuracy in the measurement of time. The most accurate method so far is a cesium clock that is accurate to two parts in a billion. Your watch would not be more than one second off 330 years from now if it ran with this accuracy. Polaris submarines and satellites in orbit many miles above the earth are dependent upon accuracy in estimating their location. This in turn depends upon _______________.
 

A) discovery of new metals
B) rapid calculations
C) ultimate accuracy in timing
D) skilled navigation

17.

Clothes keep us warm by keeping heat from escaping from the body. Wool keeps us especially warm because its fibers hold a layer of still air that is an excellent _______________.
 

A) source of heat
B) cooling system for the body
C) conductor of heat
D) shield against heat loss

18.

Zoos spend a lot of money duplicating natural conditions for the keeping of captive animals. Much success has been achieved in this area, as exemplified by the case of three magpies. A storm blew open the door to the magpie cage and three of the blue Himalayan birds escaped. Reports from all over the big city told of the birds roosting on buildings, statues, and so forth. The day after the escape the magpies returned to their cage at the zoo, indicating that they _______________.
 

A) feared harm
B) relished harm
C) felt at home
D) disliked captivity

19.

The stimulus given to us by challenging tasks is necessary for the survival of our civilization. When we are no longer forced by necessity to work, unless we stir ourselves to activity we will perish. Deterioration began in the civilizations of Greece and Rome when the people became _______________.
 

A) barbaric
B) participators
C) spectators
D) professionals

20.

One generation often finds itself trying to protect its laws against the next generation, which would change the laws. Youth often thinks the previous generation resists change, and the older generation sometimes criticizes youth as being too _______________.
 

A) conforming
B) indifferent
C) energetic
D) rebellious

21.

Elephant hunting may not be so dangerous as some men have thought. A herd of elephants will usually flee from a hunter but, if the hunter comes upon a herd of elephants at close range, they may charge. Since the elephant has very poor eyes, the hunter’s best protection is to get out range of the elephant’s _______________.
 

A) tusks
B) hearing
C) smell
D) vision

22.

One of the pleasantest things in the world is going on a journey, but I like to go by myself. I can enjoy society in a room; but outdoors, nature is _______________.
 

A) best when seen by a friend
B) company enough for me
C) best enjoyed by a group
D) not as pleasant as a book

23.

Aristotle, a philosopher of ancient Greece, was the first person we know of to write down descriptions of animals. His observations and classifications are extremely accurate to have been written over two thousand years ago. Aristotle is often credited with being the first _______________.
 

A) zoologist
B) anthropologist
C) philosopher
D) botanist

24.

An ocean-bottom seismograph has been designed to record natural earth tremors and remote nuclear explosions at a great distance under the surface of the ocean. The device operates unattended. It senses, gathers, and stores information on magnetic tape for later recovery and _______________.
 

A) construction
B) defence
C) interpretation
D) recording

25.

Researchers are studying a popular Japanese rose that can be cultivated into a matted hedge. When a car runs off the road into a large tree, the shock of the impact is absorbed by the tree abruptly, endangering the car’s occupants. In contrast, a hedge of these roses absorbs the shock of a collision gently. It is thought that this Japanese rose, planted in hedges along highways, could reduce _______________.
 

A) destruction of trees
B) driving speeds
C) traffic deaths
D) careless driving

26.

Although broken-down rock provides the basic material from which soil is formed, it is not soil. True soil in which plants will grow contains organic matter, that is , decayed animal and vegetable matter. Without this organic matter, broken rock, no matter how finely-broken it may be, is still only _______________.
 

A) organic rock
B) top soil
C) mountain soil
D) rock

27.

Rome and Carthage were great rivals for many years. For more than a century these two powers _______________.
 

A) traded with smaller powers
B) struggled for supremacy
C) protected each other
D) lived peacefully together

28.

For many years the Chinese carefully guarded the secret of their method of raising silkworms and making silk. Anyone caught carrying silk worms or their eggs out of China was _______________.
 

A) considered a foreigner
B) rewarded by the government
C) punished by death
D) automatically made a prince

29.

The “cow war” occurred in 1934 between Minnesota and the Dakotas. A severe drought had dried up all grazing land in the area except for a small part of north-western Minnesota. Farmers from North and South Dakota drove their cattle to this small area to graze. The governor of Minnesota, fearing that Minnesota cattle would not have enough grazing land, instructed National Guardsmen to prevent any Dakota cattle from crossing the line into Minnesota. The states involved, however, remained on friendly terms throughout the incident. Actually the “cow war” _______________.
 

A) involved no cows
B) was not a war
C) created ill feelings
D) attracted more cows

30.

The people of the Netherlands, popularly called Hollanders or Dutch, have increased the land area of their country for cultivation by building dikes around a lake, marsh, or sea area to keep it from flooding. The water within the diked area is drained off into canals. The newly drained, dike-protected land is called a polder. Most of the land in the western part of the Netherlands is reclaimed land. This land is flat and _______________.
 

A) is of little use
B) is flooded during ocean storms
C) is good fishing ground
D) lies below sea level

III. GENEL SORULAR

Alıştırma 19

Metinlerin sonunda yer alan sorularda en uygun seçeneği belirleyin.

A.

Well, Mrs Evans, I’ve done my very best to look after David. I’ve tidied his room up every day, got him a meal together whenever he needed one and made sure he’s always had a clean shirt to put on. It’s not been easy, what with two of my own to worry bout, as well. David’s had the best of attention, I must say. But now because I asked him to give up bringing that American friend of his home he has got quite miserable and unfriendly. He comes in at all hours and his behaviour – well it’s quite hard to put up with – and it’s all because of this friend. I’m sure he’s a bad influence. You see, David’s a visitor and doesn’t fully understand our ways. He used to study most evenings. He’d get through quite a bit of work. He did up his room quite nicely, with bookshelves and large posters. He’d ask Mr Smith and me for a drink and cheer us up with songs from his country. He’s very good on the guitar, you know. I don’t want to appear as if I’m running after him but it’s about time we made it up, I’m sure he’s upset because I told him off. It might be a good idea to take him out for a meal, perhaps even with his friend. I don’t know whether it will do any good but we can try. I’m glad I’ve had a chance to let you know of how things are and I’ll let you know how I get on.

1. David is _____________________ .

A) an American friend
B) a visiting students
C) Mrs Smith’s son
D) a servant
E) a singer

2. Mrs Smith believes that the main cause of the quarrel is ____________ .

A) herself
B) David’s friend
C) too much study
D) David’s behaviour
E) Mr Smith

3. David’s present attitude to Mrs Smith is ______________ .

A) very attentive
B) cheerful
C) incomprehensible
D) respecting
E) unfriendly

B.

Well, sir, opening a bank account is not very difficult. The trouble is finding the cash to put in it. We at Barclays know there’s a student’s problem – shortage of cash. The monthly cheque from home never seems big enough. We can’t make it any bigger but we can make it go a little further. Any student who opens a cheque account with Barclays gets our most important services free. We don’t charge you for running your account provided you keep out of the red. You’ll find you’ll be able to budget for better when you have a current account. And you’ll be able to make payments by cheque or standing order. For example you can ask us to pay you rent direct to your landlady. All you need to do is to make out a standing order, and that we means we make sure your rent is pain on time, without you having to worry about it. You’ll receive regular statements to let you know just how you stand. If you have any money problems such as sending money home or having money sent to you from home our manager will be pleased to help you in any way he can. His experience in money matters is sure to be of value to you.

1. A standing order is _____________ .

A) another name for a current account
B) a way of receiving money regularly
C) an instruction to the bank to make regular payments
D) a way of notifying the customer how he stands
E) the same of a cheque

2. An advantage of having a bank account is ______________ .

A) the bank manager is always pleased to help
B) you are never without money
C) you have proof of what you have received and paid
D) your cash is provided for you
E) you can pay your rent

3. The students problem the bank knows about is _______________ .

A) the need for a regular statement
B) the need for advice on money matters
C) a bank account is hard to open
D) a student’s income is not high enough
E) a student has to pay a rent

C.

A normal English family, especially when it has just moved into a new district, wants to be friendly with those living in the same area, yet it often hesitates because there is a fear that some neighbours might want to be too friendly and make such a habit of calling that the members of the family could not call their home their own. It is not surprising, therefore, that quite nice people wait for a proper invitation, paying no attention to the casual invitation “Come any time.” After moving into a new district a married couple will probably join a local organization, political party, parent-teacher association, musical, artistic, or literary group, a hobby group, or an evening institute for learning subjects of interest to adults. In this way natural contacts are made and people with same interest in common get to know one another. Very often this leads back to the very street where the newcomers have their home.

1. A normal English family does not want ____________________ .

A) to be friendly with its neighbours
B) its neighbours to be friendly
C) to spend too much time at its neighbours’ homes
D) its neighbours to spend too much time at its own home
E) to move into new districts to often

2. If neighbours call “Call any time”, most English people _____________ .

A) do not take it as a serious invitation
B) accept the invitation
C) call the neighbours at their homes
D) think it means ” Do not come”
E) invite them back to show attentiveness

3. A married couple in a new district will meet people by _____________ .

A) visiting them in their homes
B) inviting them to their home
C) making casual invitations
D) taking up a new hobby or a interest
E) meeting them in organized groups

D.

Rolling Stones’ story is typical of that of many contemporary groups. Mick Jagger (the singer) and Keith Richard (lead-guitar) met in 1961, whilst they were both studying in the Dartford area. They discovered they had common interests in music, and began listening to records together, an activity that soon developed into live music-making. Brian Jones (harmonica and guitar) met Keith and Mick in a Soho pub called the Bricklayer’s Arms. Mick had come to the London School of Economics, Keith was an advertising designer, and Brian a destitute wanderer who had not long returned from tramping round the Continent. Their now notorious hair was already long and, becoming aware of certain shared preoccupations and ambitions, they began meeting regularly and working out their own versions of Muddy Waters, Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley – then famous singers. The Rolling Stones made their first record only a few months after their being discovered playing to overflow teenage audiences at an obscure rhythm and blues club in Richmond.

1. The Rolling Stones were discovered playing to _________.

A) a few young people at a famous club
B) many young people at a little-known club
C) many older people at a little-known club
D) a few young people at a dark club
E) many young people at a famous club

2. Brian Jones ________________________ .

A) had more money than Richard and Jagger
B) had no interest in studying
C) had a pub in Soho
D) had just returned from Britain
E) had almost no money

3. Jagger, Richard and Jones realized _________________ .

A) they should grow hair to be famous
B) they had many problems
C) they had things in common
D) they had to find work
E) they could play famous pieces

E.

By 12.30 the room was fully laid up and all the waiters at their respective stations. A dark balding, heavy lidded man with broad shoulders and a slight stoop glanced at the table chart and took up his position at the head of the room – it was Manetta, all conversation ceased – the lull before the service. A thin trickle of clients started to arrive, to be greeted and whisked away to tables by escorting head-waiters, and the Grill slowly came to life. The room filled and the service rose to a crescendo. Everywhere there was great activity. In the kitchens below the service roared! The buffet was besieged by gesticulating waiters and overwhelmed with orders, a baffling bewilderment of many tongues: Italian, French, English and German. I was assigned to a sweet trolley by Jean the red-faced buffet chef and told to guard it with my life, check the orders and keep out of the way! I stood guarding my trolley until a waiter beckoned me to follow him and I was off. The last cog in a great service machine!

1. At 12.30 ______________________________ .

A) there was confusion
B) Manetta left the room
C) Manetta entered the room
D) the waiters were ready
E) there was disorder

2. Jean told the writer _________________ .

A) to go away
B) not to take any orders
C) to look after the trolley
D) to follow a waiter
E) to find the trolley

3. A waiter ________________________ .

A) told the writer to go away
B) gestured the writer to follow him
C) ordered the writer to leave with the trolley
D) gestured the writer to serve the clients
E) told the writer to watch the trolley

F.

My name is Police Constable Robinson, sir, driver of police car GKY 5431L. At 22.30 hours on the night of November the sixth I was introduced by radio to proceed to Smith Street, a turning off the A40 Road, where the residents had complained of a disturbance caused by a car parked at the roadside. When I arrived I found the car, number HIM 9191K, parked with its rear lights on, its headlight at full beam, the offside warning lights operating, all its four doors open and boot-lid raised. After I parked the police car at a safe distance, I approached the car HIM 9191 and found the accused apparently asleep with his head and arms resting on the steering wheel and the horn and windscreen wipers operating. I succeeded in waking the accused, sat him upright in the driving seat, cautioned him and proceeded to switch off the ignition, dip on headlights, cancel the ignitions, and to engage the handbrake. I noticed an empty bottle on the passenger seat. The bottle was marked Fine Old Malt Whisky; and a crate on the rear seat had a similar label. When I returned to the accused I noticed he had gone off to sleep again. I therefore roused him, checked his driving-licence, insurance certificate and the road fund licence of the car in question. I then began to interrogate him. The accused’s replies were slurred but were to the affect that he was surprised that a policeman had managed to smuggle himself aboard the Concorde, and he asked how I had been enjoying the flight so far. I assumed the accused had been drinking, helped him to alight from the vehicle and to stand against a nearby lamppost. I then explained I wanted him to breathe into the breathalyser bag and asked him if he would agree to do so. He replied to the effect that he would do so if I would do so, too. It was shortly afterwards when my sergeant found us sitting on the kerb blowing up the breathalyser bags.

1. The constable sat the driver upright to ____________________ .

A) stop the horn operating
B) keep the driver awake
C) inspect the bottle in the passenger seat
D) check his breath
E) check his driving licence

2. The driver _______________________ .

A) was actually a pilot
B) imagined he was on a plane
C) was on his way to the airport
D) had been flying with a policeman
E) thought the policeman was a uniformed pilot.

3. The constable got the man out of the car because ______________ .

A) he wanted to interrogate him
B) he wanted to see who the driver was
C) the driver might drive off
D) he wanted to find out if the driver was really drunk
E) he wanted to wait for his sergeant to arrive

G.

I am speaking to you tonight from Downing Street after a meeting with my colleagues of the Cabinet. I thought I should explain the reasons for the course of action we have adopted with regard to the temporary pollution of areas in the South East of Britain. You will all have read or heard of the disagreement with our essentially wise and cautious policy to preserve our most precious asset, England’s green and pleasant land. Your government has taken bold measures to contain an explosive situation developed by extremists from the dissatisfied fringe of our society. Through deceit and falsehood these extremists have persuaded some of our fellow-countrymen to take part in mass-meetings, marches and other forms of protest against government measures. Of course, a democracy thrives upon a variety of opinion and nobody should be afraid to air their views. But a democracy also requires common sense and moderation, a recognition of duty to others as well as personal rights and self-interest. Recently it was discovered that certain areas constituted a public danger because of toxic substances in the air and soil. These substances were traced to possible sources including neighbouring industries. Accordingly residents were re-housed and those areas closed so that a full inquiry could be made. There followed an unpardonable and vicious campaign, mostly in the national press, exaggerating the small but understandable grievances of the evacuees, and advocating the relocation of industries and of their waste products.

1. The speaker is explaining that the government has ________________ .

A) relocated industries
B) moved people from certain areas
C) reacted against the national press
D) put extremists in prison
E) taken measurements against pollution.

2. Some people are protesting about _____________ .

A) unemployment in the South East of Britain
B) the government’s policy of economic expansion
C) the complains of those who have had to leave their homes
D) insufficient control over the negative effects of industries
E) the government’s policy against the extremists.

3. According to the speaker, the situation has become explosive because ________ .

A) there is a variety of opinion
B) poisonous substances are in the air and soil
C) an energetic campaign has begun
D) workers have been made redundant
E) certain areas have been evacuated.

H.

You see, unlike most of the people on this programme, I don’t think that television has contributed much to our lives; in fact it gives us by its own nature a wrong slant. Perhaps the cardinal weakness in its development arose from its concern with entertainment rather than with information. Pictures on the screen have been used more to affect than to instruct. Even the news programmes set out to encourage more reaction and less reflection. Pictures shown briefly do not make you think, they merely invite you to look for the sequel, the next picture. The more you see the less you remember; you see too much to remember anything specific. It’s the same with documentaries; they leave you with a feeling rather than stimulate you to take action. The process of viewing is passive and the result of viewing is passive, too. Also TV transmits vicarious feelings. I mean, you are persuaded to react to experiences which are unfamiliar to you in your everyday life. And persuasion is an important word here because you are persuaded also to react in certain ways and to a degree that will not disturb you or your expectations too much.

1. Television’s weakness lies in ________________ .

A) its emphasis on visual images
B) its unnatural development
C) its unrealistic presentation
D) the fact that the news programmes are too reactionary
E) the pictures shown on the news.

2. The viewer is not stimulated to think because ____________ .

A) he is not active enough
B) the programmes are merely affective
C) the programmes are mainly news-based
D) there are too many documentaries
E) he is persuaded to overreact to some experiences

3. Television is dangerous because it _________________ .

A) transmits feeling indirectly
B) dissuades viewers from reactions
C) uses words wrongly
D) makes people expect too much
E) entertains viewers too much

Alıştırma 21

Okuma metinlerinin sorularını yanıtlayın.

A.

“A great mass of something” means a great amount. When factories started to manufacture great numbers of the goods the term “mass production” came into use. Mass production differs from the old methods of manufacture in many ways. In the old times, a workman often made the whole of an article himself. He put into his work all his skill and experience. If the result of his labour was satisfactory he was proud it; if not, he carried all the responsibility for any fault that appeared in his work. Thus, there was a close relationship between the workman and his work, and in each article which he produced, there was something of his personality. However, this method of manufacturing goods took a long time, and the goods were sold at a very high price. Those that were cheap enough for ordinary people were of low quality. Mass production is partly the result of the desire to produce high quality goods at a low price.

1. Mass production is ….. .

A) a great mass of something
B) producing very high quality goods
C) manufacturing goods one at a time
D) manufacturing a great amount of the same goods
E) manufacturing goods at a low price

2. Before mass production came into use, the whole of an article was made by ….. .

A) a group of workmen
B) a factory
C) machines
D) a single workman
E) ordinary people

3. High quality goods produced by using the old method of manufacture could be bought by ….. .

A) the poor as well as the rich
B) the rich
C) workmen
D) ordinary people
E) nobody

4. In the old times there was a strong tie between ….. .

A) workmen and the rich
B) factories and workmen
C) the poor and the rich
D) the workman and the article
E) high quality goods and low prices

B.

Although rarely spoken about by society, child abuse is one of the nation’s most pressing problems today. As population continues to grow, so does the number of unwanted and unplanned children. It is estimated that six or seven out of a hundred children will be maltreated or neglected. Child abuse can come in three forms: (1) passive cruelty in the neglect of children by an unloving or uneducated parent; (2) occasional cruelty in the momentary violent reaction of a frustrated or overburdened parent; and (3) consistent, deliberate cruelty in uncontrollable actions by a mentally sick parent. Simple neglect is easiest to correct. Actual abuse on the spur of the moment is more serious, but still much less so than continual abuse due to mental illness.

1. The passage suggests that the problem of child abuse __________.

A) is slowly being overcome
B) has been greatly overestimated
C) does not receive as much attention as it should
D) is confined to only a little over 10% of the population
E) has led to an increase in mental illness

2. The most serious type of child abuse __________.

A) is that perpetuated wilfully by an unbalanced parent
B) is also the type that can most easily be corrected
C) first occurred when parents had to work longer hours and were under stress
D) is due to ignorance or lack of interest and so is impossible to correct
E) can be reduced by family planning programmes

3. The passage points out that the parents of abused children __________.

A) are often very well educated people
B) usually take pleasure in hurting their children
C) are never deliberately cruel
D) normally regret any pain they have caused
E) very often have social or mental problems

C.

In this part of the country, one can find nothing but thick forests, bare rocks, water-falls, and high mountains. At the foot of one mountain is a small hut, where lives the grey-bearded Henry all by himself. He once used to have many friends. Quite early in his life he had been taught by his father to love and help people. Besides, he was kind and soft-hearted. One day his father died, leaving him a lot of money. He spent all his money in helping the people who were poor and helpless. Yet in the long run he came to realize that, after having spent all his money, he was the one who was in need of help and support. For neither his old friends nor those who seemed to be his friends offered him their help. They did not even come to visit him. Therefore, he has come to hate people and has chosen Nature as his best friend.

1. Henry spends his days ….. .

A) enjoying his time with his friends
B) living alone in Nature
C) remembering the happy days of his youth
D) solving the problems of the poor
E) feeling sorry for the loss of his money

2. Henry ….. .

A) loves people
B) loved to make fun of people
C) is afraid of people
D) had never helped people
E) used to lover and help people

3. Henry lives all alone because ….. .

A) he does not love and trust people
B) he likes the country people
C) his father is dead
D) he has always been a poor man
E) he does not want to spend his money

4. Henry hates people because he has come to understand that friendship is based upon ….. .

A) trust
B) love
C) understanding
D) kindness
E) money

D.

Money has various uses. However, it is as a measure of value that money is of the greatest use. If I work in an office, how can my employer what to pay me for my work if there is no generally accepted measure of value? He may decide to pay me a certain number of loaves of bread each month; but then I shall have to exchange some of these loaves for other things that I need. And I cannot possibly know how many loaves I should give for a pair for shoes or for the rent. Money is, therefore, a very useful means of measuring different values.

1. It is more convenient for people to be paid in ….. .

A) money
B) loaves of bread
C) pairs of shoes
D) rent
E) services

2. The best use of money is ….. .

A) as a means to buy a pair of shoes
B) as a measure of value
C) as a means to pay the rent
D) its investment
E) to spend it

3. Money is very important in the modern world because ….. .

A) without money one cannot live
B) modern standards of living are very high
C) without money it would be very difficult to decide the value of things
D) it is easier to carry money that to carry loaves of bread
E) it is valuable

4. If people were paid other things than money for their work the greatest difficulty would be to ….. .

A) store things given instead of money
B) find out what people want
C) measure what they are given
D) sell what they are given
E) exchange what they are given with what they need
 

E.

Very few people know how to read intelligently. Much experience of literature is needed before one really learns what book one most choose and read; for to read the letters of a book does not mean reading in the true sense. It is merely mechanical reading which can be done successfully by anybody who has been to school. Neither can I call it reading to concentrate on the story part of a text for one’s personal amusement or, in other words, to read a book “for the story”. However, most people read in this way.

1. In reading a book intelligently one pays attention to ….. .

A) the words
B) the story
C) the price
D) the meaning
E) the pronunciation

2. Concentrating on the story part of a book cannot be considered reading because ….. .

A) one can get too excited
B) every book does not have a story part
C) every story does not have a happy ending
D) one misses the more important aspects of the book
E) any person who has been to school can do it

3. Much experience of literature is necessary because it enables us to ….. .

A) enjoy the story only
B) read mechanically
C) read the letters of a book
D) choose the books worth reading
E) buy books

4. Few people know how to read in the true sense because …… .

A) most people do not have a chance to go to school
B) one must have many books before one can read intelligently
C) the spelling of English is pretty difficult
D) reading a book intelligently takes a lot of time
E) good books are to expensive to buy
 


YANITLAR

I. DOĞRUDAN YANITLANABİLECEK SORULAR

I. 1. METNİN TÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

I.1.A. Konu / Başlık

Alıştırma 1

1. C
2. C
3. B
4. C
5. B
6. C
7. A
8. B
9. B
10. A

I.1.B. Ana fikir

Alıştırma 2

1. E
2. E
3. D
4. A
5. C
6. D

Alıştırma 3

1.

1. D
2. B

2.

Choose the best topic. B
Choose the best central thought. C

3.

Choose the best central thought. A

I.2. METNİN BİR BÖLÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

I.2.A. Metinde var olana yönelik

a) Değinme sözcükleri.

Alıştırma 4

1. Hemingway
2. the man with the limp
3. the playwright
4. Mrs. Jones
5. the woman
6. the general’s daughter
7. the Shepherds
8. patients with diet pills
9. stutterers
10. insects of all kinds
11. his first bicycle
12. The defendants
13. Jean
14. The English
15. reasons
16. Signs of ageing
17. the members of the committee
18. the questions
19. John Glenn’s orbital journey
20. basic research

b) Bağlantı sözcükleri:

Alıştırma 5

1. B
2. B
3. B
4. B
5. A

c) Karmaşık yapılar:

Alıştırma 6

Çok çeşitli seçenekler olabilir.

Alıştırma 7

1. A
2. E
3. C

I.2.B. Metinde var olmayana yönelik

Alıştırma 8

1. Y, Y
2. D
3. D
4. D, D
5. D
6. D, D

II. DOĞRUDAN YANITLANAMAYAN SORULAR

II.1. METNİN TÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

II.1.A. Metnin / Yazarın ifade tonu

Alıştırma 9

The tone of the passage is A

II.1.B. Yazarın amacı

Alıştırma 10

1. C

2.

1. D
2. B
3. E
4. B

II.1.C. Ortam

Alıştırma 11

B

II.2. METNİN BİR BÖLÜMÜNE YÖNELİK

II.2.A. İma edilen

Alıştırma 12

1.

— Frozen food is likely to far exceed the use of other methods of preserving food. (c)
— Drying is a method that used to be used until recently. (c)

2.

— Sparrows are harmful for men in many aspects. (a)
— Farmers do not like sparrows very much. (b)

3.

— In the country, the process of disinfecting drinking water is not effective as it is in cities. (c)
— Germ are what cause typhoid. (b)

4.

— City planners should be careful before they decide on the number of trees to be planted in a certain area. (b)

— In cases when the tree is harmful for a city’s infrastructure, the solution seems to cut them down. (b)

Alıştırma 13

1.

The great temple of Borobudur is a stepped pyramid of unmortared andesite and basalt volcanic stone, standing 403 feet square and 105 feet high. This holy place lay abandoned and forgotten for more than 800 years after a devastating earthquake and an eruption of one of the four surrounding volcanoes caused its population to flee in 1006. Besides earthquakes and volcanoes, torrential rains, encroaching tropical vegetation, and time have all taken their toll.

It can be inferred from the passage that the temple of Borobudur is in ruins.

2.

Characteristics of tropical rain forests are high and steady levels of heat and moisture, as well as a wide variety of organisms. It is believed that two-thirds of all species live in tropics, and half of those live in the tropical rain forests. Nowhere else, except perhaps the tropical coral reefs, is nature so great in its diversity of organisms and complex in its biological interaction.

It can be inferred from the passage that tropical coral reefs contain a wide variety of organisms.

3.

Even though historians think that ice-skating has been a sport for the last 2,000 years, it is within the last five decades that skating has gained recognition as a form of art. Champion athletes combine new heights of athleticism with the elegance of dance in what is called figure skating. Ice skaters performing daring jumps in flamboyant costumes have brought ballet to the ice rink. Ice-skating is now seen as an exciting and innovative sport that has won millions of admirers.

It can be inferred from the passage that ice skaters are both athletes and artists.

Alıştırma 14

1. Can it be inferred that athletic women are lazy about putting on cosmetics? HAYIR
2. Can it inferred that the nervous system is important for muscle control? EVET
3. Can it be inferred that nine people died from sulfite-contaminated fresh foods? EVET
4. Can it be inferred that people who need bifocals presently use contact lenses? HAYIR
5. Can it inferred that communities are not always told when and where toxic wastes are being disposed? EVET

II.2.B. Metinden önce/sonra gelen

Alıştırma 15

1.

— Agricultural developments in a certain country.

2.

— General outline of amnesia.

3.

— A brief outline of housing in America before the George Washington period.

4. The paragraph following the passage most likely presents _____.

— shallow reasons for becoming an airline hostess.

5. Most likely, the last sentence of the paragraph preceding this one mentioned _____.

— a year.

6. Most likely, the last sentence of the paragraph preceding this one mentioned _____.

— a holiday place for those who like hunting.

7. The paragraph following the passage most likely presents _____.

— other drugs that are effective in fields that penicillin fails.

8. The paragraph following the passage most likely presents _____.

— the help Hamilton got from people other than his own family.

II.2.C. Sözcük anlamı

Alıştırma 16

1. D
2. B
3. C
4. A
5. E
6. D
7. D
8. B
9. E
10. B

Alıştırma 17

1. saldırmak
2. birleşmek
3. almak
4. mühlet
5. yalnızlık
6. devrilmek
7. ters
8. yerinden etmek

Alıştırma 18

1. C
2. A
3. C
4. A
5. A
6. B
7. A
8. A
9. D
10. B
11. A
12. B
13. D
14. B
15. A
16. C
17. D
18. C
19. C
20. D
21. D
22. B
23. A
24. C
25. C
26. D
27. B
28. C
29. B
30. D

III. GENEL SORULAR

Alıştırma 19

A.
 

1. B
2. B
3. C


B.
 

1. C
2. C
3. D


C.
 

1. D
2. A
3. E


D.
 

1. B
2. E
3. C


E.
 

1. D
2. C
3. B


F.
 

1. E
2. B
3. D


G.
 

1. E
2. C
3. C


H.
 

1. A
2. A
3. B


Alıştırma 21

A.
 

1. D
2. D
3. B
4. D


B.
 

1. C
2. A
3. E


C.
 

1. B
2. E
3. A
4. E

D.
 

1. A
2. B
3. C
4. E


E.
 

1. D
2. D
3. D
4. B

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